**Aims:**

- To develop competence among the students to pursue technical courses like Engineering, Architecture, Draftsmanship Surveying and other professional courses.
- To understand basic principles of instrumental drawing drawn to scale and to acquire basic skills in the use of traditional drafting methods which would also be helpful in understanding computer aided designs.
- To acquire the basic knowledge in their applications in various fields.

**Class IX**

There will be one written paper of **three** hours duration carrying 100 marks and Internal Assessment of 100 marks.

The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I and Section II.

**Section I** (40 marks) shall consist of compulsory short answer questions chosen from the entire syllabus.

**Section II** (60 marks) shall contain questions which require longer answers. There will be a choice of questions.

**Theory – 100 Marks**

**1. Types of lines**

- (i) Border lines.
- (ii) Outlines.
- (iii) Dashed/ Dotted lines.
- (iv) Centre lines.
- (v) Extension lines or Projection lines.
- (vi) Dimension lines.
- (vii) Construction lines.
- (viii) Cutting-Plane lines.
- (ix) Section or Hatching lines.
- (x) Short break lines.
- (xi) Long break lines.

The names of different lines and their uses to be matched with the correct thickness and shade

**2. Dimensioning**

- (i) Aligned system.
- (ii) Unidirectional System.

**3. Lettering and Numbering**

Upright capitals and small, freehand, single stroke, as used in Engineering drawing, and between, the correct guide lines.

**4. Sheet Layout**

Basic – draw border lines, title block with name, sheet number, title etc.

**5. Geometrical Constructions**

(a) Bisector of line segment.

(b) Division of a line segment into required number of parts/ proportional parts.

(c) Perpendicular and parallel lines.

(d) Bisection of an angle, trisection of a right angle/ straight angle.

(e) Congruent angle.

(f) To find the centre of an arc.

(g) Regular polygons up to six sides with simple methods using T-square and setsquares.

**Point, Lines and Angles**: Definitions of the various terms used in relation to, a point, different types of lines and different types of angles to be used only in construction.

- Bisecting a line.
- Drawing a perpendicular to a line from a point, in/above / away from the end of, the line.
- Bisecting an angle when the lines meet.
- Trisecting a right angle.
- Making an angle equal to a given angle.
- Draw parallel line to a given line touching given point away from the line by using correct instruments such as set squares/compasses.
- Draw parallel line to a given line at a given distance.
- Locating a point equally distant from two points, away from the line
- Dividing a straight line into any required number of given parts.
- Draw two lines, from two points outside a given straight line, to meet at a point in the line, making equal angles with it.
- Constructing angles of 90, 45, 22½, 135, 67½, 60, 120, 30, 52½, 105, 75, 37½. degrees.

** Triangles:** Definition of a triangle, the terms (with their definitions) relating to the different parts of a triangle, classifying the different kinds of triangles, according to their sides / angles.

Construction of Triangles when the following is given:

- the base, altitude and one side.
- all three sides.
- the base angles and the altitude.
- the base and the base angles.
- the perimeter and the proportion of the sides.
- the base and the ratio of the angles.
- the perimeter and the base angles.

Construction of Isosceles Triangles when the following is given:

- the altitude and the base.
- the base and one side.
- a base angle and an equal side.
- the altitude and an equal side.

Construction of Right angled triangles when the following is given:

- the hypotenuse and the base.
- the hypotenuse and an acute angle.
- The base and height.

**Quadrilaterals**:Definitions of a quadrilateral / different kinds of quadrilaterals, e.g. a square, a rectangle, a rhombus and a trapezium to be used only in the construction of

- a rectangle: when the diagonal and one side is given or two sides are given.
- a square: when one side or the diagonal is given.
- a rhombus: when one side and one angle is given/when two diagonals are given.
- a trapezium: when the diagonal and the equal sides are given/when two parallel sides and distance between them is given.

**Polygons**: Definition of a polygon ( regular and irregular) and the terms relating to it only to be used in construction methods and Special construction methods of regular polygons (up to eight sides) when the following is given:

- the length of a side
- the length of sides and necessary angles are given.

**Circles and tangents:** Definition of a circle / tangent, and the different parts contained in a circle, e.g. center, circumference, diameter, radius, arc, chord, sector and segment. Concentric circles only to be used in construction methods for:

- finding the center of a circle.
- obtaining its circumference, radius given.
- obtaining the length of any given arc.
- drawing an arc /a circle to pass through 2 / 3 given points.
- drawing a tangent to an arc / a circle from a point in / outside the arc / circle.
- drawing two tangents, at a given inclination to each other, to a given circle.
- drawing a tangent to a circle, parallel to a given line.
- drawing a common exterior tangent to two circles of equal diameter.
- drawing a common exterior tangent to two circles of unequal diameter, when the circles touch / do not touch / cut one another.
- drawing a common interior tangent to two circles of equal / unequal diameter when the circles touch/do not touch one another.

** 6. Basic facility in Orthographic Projections**

(a) Projection of points.

(b) Projection of lines (in 1st quadrant/ 3rd quadrant / contained by reference plane)

- (i) line parallel to both the reference planes.
- (ii) line parallel to one of the reference planes and perpendicular to the other plane.
- (iii) line inclined to one of the reference planes and parallel to the other plane.
- (iv) line inclined to both the reference planes.
- (v) To find the true length of the line from the given projections.

(c) Projections of Surfaces/ Areas: such as regular polygons and circular lamina (1st angle and 3rd angle).

- (i) surface perpendicular to both the reference planes.
- (ii) surface perpendicular to one of the reference planes and parallel to the other.
- (iii) Surface inclined to one of the surface planes and perpendicular to the other.
- (iv) Conversion of simple pictorial views into orthographic views (1st angle / 3rd angle method) Elevation (F.V) Plan (T.V.) End View: LHS/RHS.

Its definition. The complete explanation with demonstration of viewing objects, placed within the First and Third quadrant (the planes of projections), and obtaining the different views, i.e. the front elevation, visible end elevations and plan, and drawing them, accordingly, using the, First angle or the Third angle, method of projection. Hidden end elevation to be excluded. Layout of drawing sheet, i.e. the Orthographic views (First / Third angle method), inserting the required projection lines, center lines, leader lines, dimension lines, dimensioning from the Pictorial (Isometric / Oblique view) of the object.

**7. Isometric drawing**

Copying the given isometric figure (simple and basic).

Their definition and their uses, the correct method of drawing them, along with the correct use of the appropriate, basic, drawing instruments.

The difference between the Isometric projection and the Isometric view.

- drawing the Isometric view / projection, of straight lined objects, showing isometric planes.

- drawing the isometric view of cylindrically shaped objects, e.g. round bars / pipes / washers.

**8. Free hand sketching**

Domestic items, appliances and tools, such as cup with a saucer, an electric bulb, a fountain pen with the cap removed, a tooth brush, a hammer (ball / claw pein), , a woodsaw, a hacksaw, a screwdriver, a spanner, pliers, chisel, tri-square, calipers (internal and external) a pair of scissors, a pair of compasses, divider, knife, water tap etc. Draw free hand sketches of these tools keeping the proportion of various parts.

**Ppart II – Internal Assessment**

Minimum fifteen drawing assignments to be done during the year as assigned by the teacher.

**Class X**

There will be one written paper of three hours duration carrying 100 marks and Internal Assessment of 100 marks.

The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I and Section II

Section I will consist of a number of questions covering Section A of the syllabus. The candidates are to attempt three questions out of five.

Section II will consist of questions covering Section B of the syllabus. The candidates are to attempt two questions out of three.

**Theory – 100 Marks**

**Section A**

**1. Geometrical Constructions based on Plane Geometry**

- (i) Division of a line into equal or proportional parts: Construction of a triangle/ quadrilateral when its perimeter and the ratio of the lengths of its sides are given.
- (ii) Division of a circle into equal parts (4, 6, 8, 12) using set square or compasses.
- (iii) To find the length of an arc/circumference of a circle.
- (iv) An angle and a circle touching its sides.
- (v) A circle of given radius passing through two given points.
- (vi) An arc passing through three noncollinear points.
- (vii) A continuous arc passing through not more than 5 non-collinear points.
- (viii) A regular polygon (3, 4 5 6 sides) with special methods (side given).
- (ix) Construction of a regular octagon in a square (side of the square = distance between parallel sides of a octagon).
- (x) More than one polygon (sides 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) on a common base on the same side/opposite sides.
- (xi) Inscribing/Circumscribing a circle on a regular polygon (3, 4, 5, 6 sides).
- (xii) Inscribe/Circumscribe a circle of given radius by a regular polygon up to six sides.
- (xiii) In a regular polygon to draw the same number of equal circles as the sides of the polygon each circle touching one /two sides of the polygon and two of the other circles externally.
- (xiv) Outside a regular polygon to draw the same number of equal circles as the sides of the polygon each touching one side of the polygon and two of the other circles externally.
- (xv) Regular hexagon and 3 equal circles inside it touching one side/ two sides of the hexagon and the other two circles externally.
- (xvi) A circle and (3, 4, 5, 6,) equal circles inside it touching internally and touching each other externally.
- (xvii) Tangents to a circle at a point on the circumference.
- (xviii) Direct common tangents/Transverse common tangents to two equal/unequal circles. Also to measure and record their lengths.
- (xix) Drawing (not more than three) circles touching each other externally and also touching two converging lines (radius of one of the circles is given).

**2. Area constructions**

- (i) Constructions based on the application of area theorems (area of polygons).
- (ii) Converting the given polygon into a triangle having equal/half/double the area of the polygon.
- (iii) Changing given triangles (2 or 3) into a single triangle having the area equal to the sum of the areas of the given triangles.

Methods for constructing:

- a scalene triangle / isosceles triangle /a right angled triangle equal to the area / half the area / twice the area of any given quadrilateral.
- a parallelogram equal in area to any given triangle.
- a triangle equal in area to the sum of any two / three given triangles.
- a triangle equal in area / half the area to any given regular pentagon / hexagon.
- a triangle of a given base / altitude, equal in area to another given triangle.
- a triangle equal in area to ½ or twice the area of any given triangle.
- a square equal in area to any given parallelogram / triangle / rectangle.
- a square, equal in area to any given regular pentagon / hexagon.

**3. Templates as an application of geometrical** constructions and other constructions such as:

- (i) Arc of a given radius touching a given line and passing through a given point.
- (ii) Arc of given radius touching two intersecting straight lines.
- (iii) Arc of given radius touching a given arc and a straight line.
- (iv) Arc of a given radius touching two given arcs (externally/internally).

(To redraw the given figure and insert the dimensions).

Applying the construction methods, involving circles, tangential, circles / arcs /straight lines and points, for constructing **Templates** of various shapes.

**4. Scales**

- (i) To find the R.F. (Representative Fraction) and the scale length from the given data by showing neat working.
- (ii) Construction of a plain scale/diagonal scale.
- (iii) Use of constructed scale in the preparation of field drawing scale diagram (Enough data to be provided).

Definition of R.F. formula. Finding the Representative Fraction (R. F.) and the Scale length by the given data by showing neat working/lettering. Construction of Plain and Diagonal Scales in different units of linear measurements, and marked and numbered accordingly. Transferring the required measurements, from the constructed scale, to create finished Scaled drawings, of: field drawings / templates / Orthographic projections / plane geometrical constructions.

**5. Engineering Curves**

An ellipse, a parabola

Engineering Curves (construction only) as used in

manhole covers, arches, dams, monuments etc.

(i) Ellipse: (major and minor axes given)

- (a) by arcs of circles method.
- (b) by the concentric circles method.
- (c) by oblong method.

(ii) Parabola (base and axis given)

- (a) by rectangle method.
- (b) by tangent method

**6. Solids**

(i) Orthographic projections of right solids such as regular prisms and pyramids with bases as regular polygons up to six sides, cylinder and cone.

- (a) Axis perpendicular to one of the reference planes and parallel to the other.
- (b) Axis parallel to both the reference planes(prism/cylinder only).
- (c) Axis inclined to one of the reference planes and parallel to the other. Use of auxiliary plane may be included.(Auxiliary elevation and auxiliary plan).

(ii) Development of surfaces of the right solids (Parallel and Radial).

(iii) Determination of true length of line when inclined to both the reference planes e.g. slant edge of a pyramid.

**Right Solids,** such as, **Prisms** (triangular, square, pentagonal and hexagonal )

**Pyramids** (triangular, square, pentagonal and hexagonal bases.),** Cylinders** and **Cones:**

**Simple word problems on**

**(i) orthographic projections of right solids.**

- with its axis, perpendicular to one plane, and, parallel to the other plane.
- with its axis, parallel to both planes
- with its axis, parallel to one plane, and, inclined to the other plane.

**(ii) Parallel and Radial Development of lateral surfaces of right solids with axis perpendicular to H.P. and parallel to V.P.**

**(iii) Determination of true length of the slant edge of a pyramid when the slant edge is inclined to both H.P. and V.P.**

**(iv) Auxiliary views:**

Figure showing auxiliary inclined plane should be given with the word problem.

- Auxiliary elevation of right solid with axis parallel to H.P. and inclined to V.P.
- Auxiliary plan of a right solid with axis inclined to H.P. and parallel to V.P.

**7. Oblique drawing**

Conversion of given orthographic views to oblique view (circular parts in top view to be excluded).Circular parts only in one view either in front view or in the side view. The angle of inclination with the receding axis to be given

**Section B**

**8. Sections of right solids** (prism, pyramid, cylinder and cone)

(i) Sectional views of cut solids with axis perpendicular to H.P. and parallel to V.P.

- (a) V.T. (Vertical Trace) parallel to or inclined to H.P.
- (b) H.T. (Horizontal Trace) parallel/inclined to V.P. (Figure showing V.T and H.T should be given) Questions based on word problems should be excluded.

(ii) Axis parallel to both the reference planes (prism and cylinder only) with H.T .or V.T. of cutting plane shown in the figure.

(iii) Development of lateral surfaces of cut solids (parallel, radial): Prism, Pyramid, cylinder, cone.

(iv) Development of pipe joints as elbow joints, exhaust pipes etc. and the objects made of sheet metals in the shape of cylinders.

(v) True shape of a section.

(vi) Auxiliary views (A.F.V. /A.T.V.) of cut solids with axis perpendicular to H.P and parallel to V.P with

- (a) Auxiliary plane parallel to the cutting plane.
- (b) Auxiliary plane inclined to H.P at a given angle q.

**Sections of Right Solids**, such as,** Prisms, Cylinders, Pyramids** and **Cones**.

Sectional views, of cut / truncated solids,

- with its axis, perpendicular to the H.P. and parallel to the V.P., when the cutting plane is parallel / inclined to H.P. or, to the V.P. (only one cutting plane to be expressed in the figure)
- with its axis, parallel to both planes ( prisms and cylinders only), with not more than one cutting plane shown in the figure.

**Developments** of the lateral surfaces of:

- Cut Solids / Truncated Solids (parallel and radial), such as, Prisms, Cylinders, Pyramids and Cones with one cutting plane shown in the figure.
- Cylindrical pipe joints, as used for constructing, Chimneys, Ventilators, exhaust pipes, etc., as application of development of lateral surfaces of cut/truncated cylinders with one/more than one cutting plane shown in the figure.

**Auxiliary view**, of cut / truncated solids such as prism / pyramids / cylinder / cone, when the axis is perpendicular to the H.P. and parallel to the V.P. with the Auxiliary plane;

- parallel to the cutting plane.
- at an inclination to the H.P

Auxiliary plane should be shown in the figure. **and**

The **True Shape** of the, cut / truncated, surface of right solids such as prism / pyramid / cylinder / cone when axis is perpendicular to H.P. and parallel to V.P.

**9. Isometric Drawing** (Use of scale to draw isometric drawing may be included. e.g. 2:1 or 1:2 only).

- (a) Copy the given isometric figure.
- (b) Conversion of the given orthographic view into isometric drawing.
- (c) Isometric projection by constructing and making use of an isometric scale.

**Isometric Drawing**: In full scale and maybe in the scale of 2:1 or 1:2.

- Drawing the Isometric view, from a given,Isometric view.
- Drawing the Isometric view, by reading and visualizing the same, from the given Orthographic views
- Drawing the Isometric projection from either a given pictorial view or the Orthographic views, by constructing and using the
**Isometric Scale.**

**10. Sectional Orthographic views** (1st and 3rd angle methods)

- (a) Conversion of given pictorial view (Isometric/oblique into sectional/half sectional orthographic views).
- (b) Conversion of a given orthographic view into sectional/half sectional views and adding the missing view.

**The Orthographic Projection,** First and Third, angle methods: (at least one of the views as sectional view).

- Drawing the Orthographic views / full sectional views / half-sectional views of an object shown in a given pictorial view: Isometric / Oblique with cutting plane / planes shown.
- Converting the given Orthographic view / views into Sectional views, full / half according to the Cutting plane line / lines marked in a given view / views.
- Dimensioning the Orthographic views showing the cutting plane, naming the views.

** Part II- Internal Assessment – 100 Marks**

- To prepare a file containing minimum 15 drawing assignments. The drawing assignments should cover entire syllabus of class X. One / two assignments on each units of syllabus should be prepared on half imperial size drawing paper.
- To make a three dimensional model with stiff cartridge paper / chart paper involving the application of the development of solids such as a prism / pyramid.
- To make a model with thermocol involving the application of the true shape of the section of truncated solids such as a prism / pyramid / cylinder / cone.

**Evaluation**

The assignments/project work is to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the Head of the school, who could be from the faculty, **but not teaching the subject in the section/class.**

The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the assignments independently.

**Award of marks (100 marks)**

Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner): 50 marks

External Examiner: 50 marks

The total marks obtained out of 100 are to be sent to the Council by the Head of the school. The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry of the marks on the mark sheets provided by the Council.