Class X Social Science Notes: Nationalism and Imperialism

Nationalism and Imperialism

  • Idealistic liberal democratic sentiments because of a narrow creed with limited ends. Nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant of each other and ever ready to go to war.
  • After 1871 nationalist tension mounted in Europe in the area called Balkan’s. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations.
  • A large part of Balkans was under the contral of the ottoman Empire.
  • The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans and downfall of Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
  • As the different Slavic nationalist struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkans became an area of conflict.
  • There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies.
  • This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the first world war.
  • Many countries in the world which had been colonized by the European powers in the 19th century began to oppose imperial domination.
  • The anti-imperial movements developed nationalism and formed independent nationstates.

A New Conservatism after 1815

  • After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 European govts were driven by the spirit of conservatism.
  • Conservatives believed in traditional institutions of state & society like the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies, property and the family be preserved.
  • In 1815 representatives of the European powers. Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria who had collectively defeated Napoleon met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
  • The treaty of Vienna of 1815. The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed after the French revolution was restored to power.
  • Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and sought to curb the activities.
  • Most of them imposed censorship laws to control newspapers, books plays and songs and reflected ideas of liberty and freedom.

Important Questions 
1. Why did Nationalist conflict rise in the Balkans?
2. Describe the rise of Nationalism in the third phase of 19th century in Europe.
3. What do you understand by the term conservatism?
4. When was Napoleon defeated and who defeated him?
5. Explain the treaty of Vienna what were its objectives?
6. What type of conservative order existed in Europe in 1815?
Class X Social Science All Topics Notes