ISC 2013 Class XI & XII Syllabus – Accounts

Aims:

1. To provide an understanding of the principles of accounts and practice in recording transactions and interpreting individual as well as company accounts.

2. To develop an understanding of the form and classification of financial statements as a means of communicating financial information.

CLASS XI

There will be one paper of 3 hours duration of 100 marks divided into two parts.

Part I (30 marks) will be compulsory and will consist of two questions based on the entire syllabus.

Question 1 (20 marks) will include compulsory short answer questions, testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary/ fundamental aspects of the syllabus.

Question 2 (10 marks) will be a compulsory numerical question.

Part II (70 marks): Candidates will be required to answer five questions out of eight questions from this section. Each question shall carry 14 marks.

1. Basic Accounting Concepts

Background of accounting and accountancy: knowledge and understanding of IFRS; accounts – types and classification; basic terms used in accounting, Accounting Standards and Accounting Equation.

(a) Evolution of accounting; difference between bookkeeping, accounting and accountancy; functions, characteristics, objectives, advantages and limitations of accounting; users of accounting information; subfields of accounting – meaning of financial accounting, cost accounting and management accounting.

(b) Accounting concepts – IFRS – money measurement, dual aspect, going concern, periodicity, accrual, matching; realisation, business entity, materiality, consistency, conservatism, historical cost, disclosure and objectivity.

(c) Basic Terms: Debtors, Creditors, Assets, Liabilities, Goods, Stock, Profit, Loss, Expense, Expenditure, Revenue, Income, Transactions, Drawings and Capital.

(d) Accounting Standards – meaning and usefulness.

(e) Basis of accounting – cash basis and accrual basis and hybrid basis.

(f) Accounting equation.

2. Journal and Ledger

(i) Journal: recording of entries in journal with narration.

a) Classification of Accounts.
b) Double Entry System.
c) Rules of journalising.
d) Meaning of journal.
e) Format of journal.
f) Simple and compound journal entries (with specimens to practice).
g) Advantages of using a journal.
h) Sub-division of journal – cash book (including petty cash book), sales day book, purchases day book, sales return day book, purchases return day book, bills receivable book, bills payable book and Journal proper.

(ii) Ledger: posting from journal to respective ledgers.

a) Meaning of ledger.
b) Format of a ledger.
c) Mechanics of posting.
d) Balancing of various ledger accounts.
e) Practical problems on journal and ledger.

3. Cash Book and Bank Reconciliation Statement

(i) Cash book (including petty cash book): single column; double column; triple column.

a) Cash Book: single, double and triple column cash book.

  • Meaning, need and importance.
  • Recording transactions in a cash book.

b) Petty Cash Book –

  • Meaning and advantages.
  • Analytical Petty Cash Book.
  • Meaning and advantages of the Imprest System including practical problems.

(ii) Bank reconciliation statement.

a) Meaning and need for bank reconciliation statement.

b) Preparation of a bank reconciliation statement given in the cash book balance or the pass book balance or both.

c) Preparation of a bank reconciliation statement given an extract of the cash book as well as the pass book relating to the same month.

4. Trial Balance, Rectification, Capital and Revenue Expenditure and Income

(i) Trial balance.

a) Meaning, objectives, advantages and limitations of a trial balance.
b) Preparation of the trial balance from given ledger account balances.
c) Redrafting of a trial balance.

(ii) Errors and types of errors: errors of omission; errors of commission; errors of principles; compensating errors.

a) Errors disclosed by the trial balance.
b) Errors not disclosed by the trial balance.
c) Rectification of errors after the preparation of trial balance and use of suspense account.

(iii) Capital and revenue expenditure/income.

a) Meaning and difference between expenditure and expense, income and receipt.
b) Meaning and difference between capital expenditure and revenue expenditure with examples.
c) Meaning and difference between capital income and revenue income with examples.
d) Meaning and difference between capital profit and revenue profit with examples.
e) Meaning and difference between capital loss and revenue loss with examples.
f) Meaning of deferred revenue expenditure with examples.

NOTE: Rectification of errors after the preparation of final accounts is not required.

5. Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves

(i) Depreciation.

Depreciation – meaning, need, causes, objectives and characteristics.

(ii) Methods of charging depreciation (straight line and WDV method).

Method of recording depreciation – charging to asset account, creating provision for depreciation / accumulated depreciation, treatment of disposal of assets.

(iii) Application of depreciation with the above mentioned methods: problems with purchase and sale of assets.

Application of depreciation with the above mentioned methods; problems with purchase and sale.

(iv) Provisions and Reserves.

Meaning, importance; difference between provisions and reserves; types of reserves – revenue reserve, capital reserve, general reserve, specific reserve and secret reserve.

6. Final Accounts and Concept of Trading, Profit and Loss account and Balance Sheet (with and without adjustments), Marshalling of Balance Sheet

(i) Meaning and preparation of Trading, Profit and Loss account and Balance Sheet of sole tradership. (Horizontal format) – without adjustments.

(ii) Preparation of Trading Account, Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet with necessary adjustments.

Adjustments relating to closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income, income received in advance, depreciation and bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors and manager’s commission, goods distributed as free samples and goods taken by the owner for personal use, abnormal loss. Interest on capital and drawings.

(iii) Marshalling of a Balance Sheet: Order of liquidity and Order of permanence.

Self explanatory.

7. Single Entry – Accounts from incomplete records

(i) Single entry and difference with double entry.

(a) Meaning, characteristics and limitations.
(b) Applications to practical problems/ exercises.
(c) Difference between Statement of Affairs and Balance Sheet.

(ii) Ascertainment of profit/loss by statement of affairs method including application.

Self explanatory.

(iii) Application to Problems.

Various types of problems under statement of affairs method/Balance Sheet approach.

NOTE:

Single entry system as applied to partnerships is not required.

8. Non Trading Organisation

(i) Non trading organization: meaning, objectives, necessity and treatment of specific items.

Self explanatory.

(ii) Different books maintained and differences between them.

(a) Receipts and Payments Accounts: meaning, features, differences between Receipts and Payments Account and Cash Book.
(b) Income and Expenditure Accounts: meaning, features, difference, between Income and Expenditure account and profit and loss account.
(c) Balance Sheets and their respective roles.

(iii) Application of non-trading exercises involving: preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and Closing Balance Sheet.

Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet when Receipts and Payments Account and other information is given.

NOTE: Preparation of a Receipts and Payments Account only or an Income and Expenditure Account with a Balance Sheet from incomplete records need not be covered.

9. Bills of Exchange

(i) Introduction to Negotiable Instruments: explanation of basic terms.

Meaning of negotiable instruments; Bills of exchange, promissory note, cheque, advantages and disadvantages of Bills of Exchange, explanation of basic terms – drawer, drawee, payee, endorser, endorsee, bill at sight, bill after date, tenure of the bill, days of grace, due date, dishonour of a bill, noting charges, notary public, renewal of a bill and retirement of a bill, bill sent for collection.

(ii) Applications to practical problems/exercises.

Applications to practical problems including insolvency.

NOTE: Accommodation Bill is not required.

10. Introduction to the use of Computers in Accounting

(i) Applications of Computers in Accounting.

(a) Automation of accounting process.
(b) MIS reports.

(ii) Comparison of Manual and Computerized Accounting.

Meaning, advantages and limitations of Manual and Computerized System of Accounting.

(iii) Accounting Software.

Readymade and computerized accounting softwares. Advantages and disadvantages of each.

PROJECT WORK

In addition to the syllabus prescribed for Classes XI & XII, candidates at Class XI ONLY are also required to complete any one Accounting project given below using any accounting software (Project 1) and any electronic spreadsheet (Project 2) for preparation of accounting information of a Business Organization.

1. Introduction to a Financial Accounting Software.

(i) Installation and setup of the Financial Accounting Package.
(ii) Setting up a new company with account heads related to the type of company created.
(iii) Voucher entry and generation of reports.

2. Usage of an Electronic Spreadsheet to calculate profitability and inventory levels of a Business entity.

(i) Understanding of the spreadsheet in terms of rows, columns and cells using cell reference.
(ii) Preparing various types of reports using a spreadsheet that includes cell formatting.
(iii) Generation of Graphs to reflect profitability and sales over a period of time.

The Project Work is to be internally assessed at Class XI level only.

CLASS XII

There will be one paper of 3 hours duration of 100 marks divided into two parts.

Part I (30 marks) will be compulsory and will consist of two questions based on the entire syllabus.

Question 1 (20 marks) will include compulsory short answer questions, testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary/ fundamental aspects of the syllabus.

Question 2 (10 marks) will be a compulsory numerical question.

Part II (70 marks): Candidates will be required to answer five questions out of eight questions from this section. Each question shall carry 14 marks.

1. Joint Venture

Joint Venture: objectives; necessity and methods of accounting (recording of transactions in the books of one Joint Venturer, recording of transactions in the books of all Joint Venturers, recording of transactions in separate set of books).
Joint Venture: meaning, features, objectives and application of Joint Venture problems under three different methods of accounting.
a) Recording of transactions in the books of one Joint Venturer.
b) Recording of transactions in the books of all Joint Venturers.
c) Recording of transactions in separate set of books.

NOTE:

Valuation of closing stock in Joint Venture including abnormal and normal losses and Joint Ventures for underwriting shares are included.

Interim settlement of accounts, interest calculation and incomplete ventures on the date of final settlement of accounts are excluded from the syllabus along with conversion of consignment into joint venture.

2. Self Balancing and Sectional Balancing System

(i) Meaning of Self Balancing System and application of the system in solving practical problems.

Meaning, classification of ledgers, transfer between subsidiary ledgers, advantages, and application of problems relating to adjustment accounts.

(ii) Meaning of Sectional Balancing System and application of the system in solving practical problems.

Meaning, classification of ledgers and application of problems relating to control accounts.

NOTE: Rectification of errors relating to Self-Balancing and Sectional Balancing are not required.

3. Partnership Accounts

(i) The Indian Partnership Act, 1932: definition, features – meaning and importance of partnership deed.

Self explanatory.

(ii) Practical problems on preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation Account and Capital Accounts.

(a) Profit and Loss Appropriation Account.
(b) Partners’ capital accounts: types – fixed and fluctuating.

Interest on capital, interest on drawings, salary, commission to partners, transfer to reserves and division of profit among partners.

NOTE:

  • Interest on partner’s loan to be taken as a charge against profits.
  • Interest on loan should be credited to a separate loan account.
  • Rent paid to a partner is a charge against profit and not an appropriation of profit and so it is to be debited to profit and loss account and not to profit and loss appropriation account and credited partners’ current account in case of fixed capital system or to partners’ capital account when capitals are fluctuating.

NOTE: Guarantee of Profits and Past Adjustments (interest on capital, interest Drawings, salary and Profit and Loss ratio) are to be covered. Admission: Goodwill – concept and mode valuation.

a) Meaning of Goodwill.
b) Mode of Valuation.

  • Average profit method.
  • Super profit method.
  • Capitalization method.

− Capitalization of average profit method and
− Capitalization of super profit method.

(iv) Accounting treatment of goodwill admission of a partner.

Based on Accounting Standard –26 issued the Institute of Chartered Accountants India in the context of Intangible Assets.

a) Premium for goodwill paid privately.
b) Premium for goodwill paid (in cash kind) and retained in the business.
c) Premium for goodwill paid and withdrawn by the old partners.
d) When the incoming partner cannot bring premium for goodwill.
e) When a loan account is raised in the name of the incoming partner.
f) Hidden goodwill.
g) When the incoming partner brings personal goodwill into the business.
h) When goodwill appears in the old Balance Sheet and the incoming partner pays premium for goodwill or pays partly the premium for goodwill.

(v) Preparation of Revaluation Account or Memorandum Revaluation Account.

a) Preparation of a Revaluation Account where changes in the values of assets and liabilities are reflected in the new Balance Sheet after reconstitution of a partnership firm.
b) Preparation of a Memorandum Revaluation Account where changes in the values of assets and liabilities are not reflected in the new Balance Sheet after reconstitution of a partnership firm.

(vi) Accounting treatment of accumulated profits and losses.

Self Explanatory.

(vii) Adjustment of Capitals.

Problems pertaining to capital adjustments.

(viii) Retirement, death and change in the profit sharing ratio of a partner.

a) Adjustment with regard to goodwill.
b) Adjustment with regard to undistributed profits and losses.
c) Change in the Profit sharing ratio.
d) Adjustment with regard to share of profits from the date of the last Balance Sheet to the date of retirement or death (on the basis of time or turnover).

(ix) Preparation of Revaluation Account or Memorandum Revaluation Account on retirement or death of a partner and construction of loan account and adjustment of capital as per new ratio.

Preparation of Revaluation Account or Memorandum Revaluation Account on retirement and death of a partner and construction of loan account and executor’s account and adjustment of capital as per new profit and loss sharing ratio with or without the use of current account .

(x) Dissolution.

(a) Meaning of dissolution, modes of dissolution, modes of settlement of accounts.

(b) Preparation of Realization Account.

(c) Treatment of undistributed profits and losses.

(d) Preparation of Cash / Bank Account.

NOTE:

  • When an asset or a liability is taken to the realization account any corresponding related fund or reserve is also transferred to realization account and not to capital account.
  • When accounts are prepared on a fixed basis partners current account balances are to be transferred to capital account. No adjustments are required to be passed through current account.
  • Admission cum retirement, amalgamation of firms and conversion/sale to a company together with piecemeal distribution not required.
  • Bank overdraft is not to be transferred to realization account but bank loan must be transferred to realization account.

4. Joint Stock Company Accounts

A. Issue of Shares.

Application of problems on issue of shares.
(a) Issue of shares at par, premium under Companies Act, 1956.
(b) Issue of shares for considerations other than cash:

  • To promoters.
  • To underwriters.
  • To vendors.

(c) Calls in arrears, calls in advance and interest thereon including the preparation of ledger accounts.
(d) Over and undersubscription (including prorata allotment).

NOTE: In prorata allotment when shares are issued at a premium, excess money received on application will first be adjusted towards the share capital. Any excess thereon will be utilized towards the securities premium.

(e) Forfeiture and reissue of shares.

Self explanatory.

NOTE: Issue of bonus and rights shares, private placement of shares, sweat equity shares, employees stock option scheme, reservations for small individual participants and minimum tradable lots are not required.

B. Issue of Debentures

Application of problems on issue of debentures – at par and at premium.

Application of problems on issue of debentures to include:

(a) Issue of debentures at par and at premium under Companies Act.

(b) Interest on debentures.

(c) Accounting entries at the time of issue when debentures are redeemable at premium.

(d) Issue of debentures as collateral security for a loan.

  • To promoters.
  • To underwriters.
  • To vendors

(e) Issue of debentures for considerations other than cash.

NOTE:

Premium on the redemption of debentures to be recorded under the sub-head ‘Provisions’.

Redemption of debentures with or without sinking funds are excluded.

C. Final Accounts of Companies

Application of Schedule VI of Companies Act including Profit and Loss Appropriation Account of companies.

Application of problems.

Schedule VI Part I under Companies Act – Preparation of a company Balance Sheet. (Horizontal Form) – Major Heads only.

Schedule VI Part II under Companies Act – preparation of a company Profit & Loss Account and Profit & Loss Appropriation Account.

Preparation of Final Accounts of a company from a trial balance with or without adjustments.

NOTE:

Managerial remuneration and taxation are not required.

Debit balance of profit and loss account are to be shown in the asset side of balance sheet.

Calls in advance is to be taken as a current liability.

5. Cash Flow Statement and Ratio Analysis

(i) Meaning, importance and preparation of a Cash Flow Statement.

NOTE: Based on Accounting Standard – 3 (revised) issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

(ii) Calculation of net cash flows from operating activities based on Indirect Method only.

Preparation of a Cash Flow Statement from two consecutive years’ Balance Sheet with or without adjustments.

NOTE: Any adjustment or an item in the Balance Sheet relating to issue of bonus shares, Foreign Currency Cash Flows; Extraordinary items; Investment in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures; Acquisitions and Disposals of Subsidiaries and other Business Units; and Non Cash Transactions are not required. Redemption of preference shares and debentures with or without sinking funds are excluded.

(iii) Preparation of Cash Flow Statement on basis of operating, investing and financing activities.

The following items are to be taken when calculating net cash flows from financing activities:

  • Issue of shares and debentures at a premium.
  • Interest paid on debentures and public deposits.
  • Cash proceeds from public deposits.
  • Repayment of bank loan.
  • Share issue expenses paid off.

The following items are to be taken when calculating net cash flows from investing activities:

  • Cash purchase of fixed assets.
  • Cash sale of fixed assets.
  • Purchase of shares or debentures or marketable securities or long term investments of other companies.
  • Sale of shares or debentures or marketable securities or long term investments of other companies.
  • Cash advances and loans made to third parties of other enterprises.
  • Cash receipts from the repayment of advances and loans made to third parties of other enterprises.

(iv) Ratio Analysis.

Meaning, advantages and limitations of ratio analysis.

(v) Application of ratio analysis including calculations of various ratios (excluding interpretation, analysis, comparisons, conclusions and the preparation of Trading, Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet).

(a) Balance Sheet Ratios:






Current assets = cash in hand, cash at bank, marketable securities, short-term investments, sundry debtors, bills receivable, accrued income, prepaid expenses, stock in trade.

Current liabilities = Sundry creditor, bills payable, liability for taxes, outstanding expenses, income received in advance, provision for taxation, proposed dividend, bank overdraft.

Long term debts = Secured loans + Unsecured loans.

Cost of Goods sold = opening stock plus net purchases plus direct expenses minus closing stock.

Cost of Goods sold = Net sales minus gross profit.

Operating ratio = 100 – operating profit ratio.

Operating profit = Gross profit minus Administrative expenses minus selling and Distribution expenses.

OR

Operating profit = Net profit plus non-operating expenses minus non-operating incomes.

PAT = Net profit after taxation minus preference dividend.