(i) The electric and magnetic fields satisfy the following wave equations, which can be obtained from Maxwell’s third and fourth equations.

(viii) The intensity of a sinusoidal plane electro-magnetic wave is defined as the average value of Poynting vector taken over one cycle.

(ix) The fundamental sources of electromagnetic waves are accelerating electric charges. For example radio waves emitted by an antenna arise from the continuous oscillations (and hence acceleration) of charges within the antenna structure.

(x) Electromagnetic waves obey the principle of superposition.

(xi) The electric vector of an electromagnetic field is responsible for all optical effects. For this reason electric vector is called a light vector.

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