1.      Haloalkanes:-

The monohalogen derivatives of alkanes are called alkyl Halide or simply Haloalkanes

 

Example:

                        CH3Cl                           CH3CH2Br

chloromethane                       1 – Bromoethane

CH3CH2CH2I                 CH3CH2CH2CH2I

1 – Iodopropane          1 –Iodobutane

 

CLASSIFICATION OF HALOALKANES ON THE BASIS OF CARBON ATOMS:-

a. Primary alkyl halide:-

The haloalkanes in which halogen atom is attached to the 1ocarbon atom is known as primary alkyl halide.

1o

CH3CH2CH2Br,             CH3CH2CH2CH2Br

1 – Bromopropane      1 –Bromobutane

CH3(CH2)4Br                 1 –Bromopentane

b. Secondary alkyl halide:-

In which the halogen atom is attached to 2o carbon atom.

c. Tertiary alkyl halide:-

Haloalkane in which the halogen atom is attached to 3o carbon atom

 

CLASSIFICATION OF HALOGEN COMPOUNDS-II

2. Haloalkenes:-

The halogen derivatives of alkenes are known as they have general formula

CnH2n-1X

CH2 = CH – Cl                          Br – CH2 – CH = CH2

Chloroethene                          3 – Bromoprop – 1 –ene

CH3 – CH = CH – CH2Cl

1 – chlorobut – 2 –ene

Haloalkynes:-

They are the halogen derivatives of alkynes the monohalogen derivatives of alkynes have general formula CnH2n-3X

H – C ºC – Cl               CH3 – C ºC – Br

chloroethyne               1 – Bromoprop – 1 –yne

Br – CH2 – C º CH

3 – Bromoprop – 1 –yne

Aomatic Halogen Compounds:-

The Halogen Compounds obtained by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms of an aromatic hydrocarbon by an equal number of halogen atoms.

Example:

AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS CAN BE FURTHER CLASSIFIED AS:-

1.         Nuclear Halogen derivatives:-

Halogen derivatives of hydrocarbons in which the halogen atom (F, Cl, Br or I) is directly attached to an aromatic ring are called aryl halides.

 

2.         Side Chain Halogen Derivatives:-

Halogen derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons in which the halogen atom is linked to one of the carbon atoms of the side chain carrying the aryl group are called aralkyl halide.

CLASSIFICATION OF HALO COMPOUNDS ON THE BASIS OF TYPE OF HYBRIDIZATION OF CARBON BONDED H ATOM:-

a)      AllylicHalides:-

In these type of halidehalogen is linked to a sp3- hybridized carbon atom which is next to C – C double bond.

 

        i.      Propyl halides:-

In these halides, halogen is attached to a sp3 – hybridized carbon atom which is next to carbon – C triple bond.

Example:

 

b)      Compounds Containing Csp2 – X bond:-

  1.                                                                                       i.      Vinylic halides:-

In these halides the halogen is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the C – C double bond. For

 

i.      Aryl halides:-

In these halides the halogen is directly attached to the aromatic ring

c)      Compounds containing C5p-X bond (X = F, Cl, Br or I):-

 

In these halides, halogen is directly attached to one of the carbon atoms of triple bond.

Example:

H – C ºC – Cl               CH3 – C ºC – Cl

chloroethyne               1 –chloropropyne

 

 

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Class 12 Chem Haloalkanes and Haloarenes All Topic Notes Class 12 Chemistry All Chapters Notes

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