(a)Doping: The process of mixing impurities of other elements in pure semiconductors is known as doping.

(b)Extrinsic semiconductors: the semiconductors, in which trivalent and pentavalent elements are mixed as impurities, are known as extrinsic semiconductors.

(c) The extrinsic semiconductors are of two types

(i)  N-type semiconductors

(ii) P-type semiconductors.

d) Difference between N-type and P-type semiconductors

(vii)      Characterizes Si and Ge at 300 K

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