NCERT Class XI Economics: Chapter 7 – Employment : Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Book for Class XI
Chapter: Chapter 7 – Employment : Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues
Class XI NCERT Economics Text Book Chapter 7 Employment : Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues is given below.
After studying this chapter, the learners will
- understand a few basic concepts relating to employment such as economic activity, worker, workforce and unemployment
- understand the nature of participation of men and women in various economic activities in various sectors
- know the nature and extent of unemployment
- assess the initiatives taken by the government in generating employment opportunities in various sectors and regions.
People do a variety of work.Some work on farms, infactories, banks, shops andmany other workplaces; yet afew others work at home. Workat home includes not onlytraditional work like weaving,lace making or variety ofhandicrafts but also modernjobs like programming work inthe IT industry. Earlier factorywork meant working infactories located in citieswhereas now technology hasenabled people to produce thosefactory-based goods at home invillages.
Why do people work? Work playsan important role in our lives asindividuals and as members of society.People work for ‘earning’ a living. Somepeople get, or have, money by inheritingit, not working for it. This does notcompletely satisfy anybody. Beingemployed in work gives us a sense ofself-worth and enables us to relateourselves meaningfully with others.Every working person is activelycontributing to national income andhence, the development of the countryby engaging in various economicactivities — that is the real meaning of‘earning’ a living. We do not work only
for ourselves; we also have a sense ofaccomplishment when we work to meetthe requirements of those who aredependent on us. Having recognisedthe importance of work, MahatmaGandhi insisted upon education andtraining through a variety of worksincluding craft.
Studying about working peoplegives us insights into the quality andnature of employment in our countryand helps in understanding andplanning our human resources. It helpsus to analyse the contribution made bydifferent industries and sectors towardsnational income. It also helps us toaddress many social issues such asexploitation of marginalised sections ofthe society, child labour etc.
7.2 WORKERS AND EMPLOYMENT
What is employment? Who is a worker?When a farmer works on fields, he orshe produces food grains and rawmaterials for industries. Cottonbecomes cloth in textile mills and inpowerlooms. Lorries transport goodsfrom one place to another. We knowthat the total money value of all suchgoods and services produced in acountry in a year is called its grossdomestic product for that year. Whenwe also consider what we pay for ourimports and get from our exports wefind that there is a net earning for thecountry which may be positive (if wehave exported more in value terms thanimported) or negative (if importsexceeded exports in value terms) or zero(if exports and imports were of the samevalue). When we add this earning (plusor minus) from foreign transactions,what we get is called the country’s grossnational product for that year.
Those activities which contribute tothe gross national product are calledeconomic activities. All those who areengaged in economic activities, inwhatever capacity — high or low, areworkers. Even if some of themtemporarily abstain from work due toillness, injury or other physicaldisability, bad weather, festivals, socialor religious functions, they are alsoworkers. Workers also include all thosewho help the main workers in theseactivities. We generally think of onlythose who are paid by an employer fortheir work as workers. This is not so.Those who are self-employed are also
The nature of employment in Indiais multifaceted. Some get employmentthroughout the year; some others getemployed for only a few months in ayear. Many workers do not get fairwages for their work. While estimatingthe number of workers, all those whoare engaged in economic activities areincluded as employed. You might beinterested in knowing the number ofpeople actively engaged in variouseconomic activities. During 1999-2000, India had about a 400 millionstrong workforce. Since majority of ourpeople reside in rural areas, theproportion of workforce residing there
is higher. The rural workers constituteabout three-fourth of this 400 million.Men form the majority of workforce inIndia. About 70 per cent of the workersare men and the rest are women (menand women include child labourers inrespective sexes). Women workersaccount for one-third of the ruralworkforce whereas in urban areas,they are just one-fifth of the workforce.Women carry out works like cooking,fetching water and fuelwood andparticipate in farm labour. They arenot paid wages in cash or in the formof grains; at times they are not paid atall. For this reason, these women arenot categorised as workers.Economists have argued that thesewomen should also be called workers.
7.3 PARTICIPATION OF PEOPLE INEMPLOYMENT
Worker-population ratio is an indicatorwhich is used for analysing theemployment situation in the country.This ratio is useful in knowing theproportion of population that isactively contributing to the productionof goods and services of a country. Ifthe ratio is higher, it means that theengagement of people is greater; if theratio for a country is medium, or low,it means that a very high proportionof its population is not involveddirectly in economic activities.You might have already studied,in lower classes, the meaning of theterm ‘population’. Population isdefined as the total number of peoplewho reside in a particular locality ata particular point of time. If you want to know the worker-population ratiofor India, divide the total number ofworkers in India by the population inIndia and multiply it by 100, you willget the worker-population ratio forIndia.
If you look at Table 7.1, it showsthe different levels of participation ofpeople in economic activities. Forevery 100 persons, about 40 (byrounding off 39.5) are workers inIndia. In urban areas, the proportionis about 34 whereas in rural India, theratio is about 42. Why is there such adifference? People in rural areas havelimited resources to earn a higherincome and participate more in theemployment market. Many do not goto schools, colleges and other traininginstitutions. Even if some go, theydiscontinue in the middle to join theworkforce; whereas, in urban areas, aconsiderable section is able to study invarious educational institutions. Urbanpeople have a variety of employmentopportunities. They look for theappropriate job to suit theirqualifications and skills. In rural areas,people cannot stay at home as theireconomic condition may not allow themto do so.
Compared to females, more malesare found to be working. The differencein participation rates is very large inurban areas: for every 100 urbanfemales, only about 14 are engaged insome economic activities. In rural areas,for every 100 rural women about 30participate in the employment market.Why are women, in general, and urbanwomen, in particular, not working? Itis common to findthat where men areable to earn highincomes, familiesdiscourage femalemembers fromtaking up jobs.Going back towhat has alreadybeen mentionedabove, many activitiesfor the householdengaged in by womenare not recognised asproductive work.This narrow definitionof work leads tonon-recognition of women’s work and, therefore, to theunderestimation of the number ofwomen workers in the country. Thinkof the women actively engaged in manyactivities within the house and at familyfarms who are not paid for such work.As they certainly contribute to themaintenance of the household andfarms, do you think that their numbershould be added to the number ofwomen workers?
7.4 SELF-EMPLOYED AND HIRED W O R K E R S
Does the worker-population ratio sayanything about workers’ status insociety or about the workingconditions? By knowing the statuswith which a worker is placed in anenterprise, it may be possible to knowone dimension — quality of employmentin a country. It also enables us to knowthe attachment a worker has with his
or her job and the authority she or hehas over the enterprise and over otherco-workers.
Let us take three workers from theconstruction industry — a cement shopowner, a construction worker and a civilengineer of a construction company. Sincethe status of each one of them is differentfrom another, they arealso called differently.Workers who own andoperate an enterprise toearn their livelihoodare known as selfemployed.
Thus thecement shop owner isself-employed. More thanhalf the workforce in Indiabelongs to this category.The construction workersare known as casualwage labourers; theyaccount for 33 per centof India’s workforce.
Such labourers arecasually engaged in others’farms and, in return, get aremuneration for the workdone. Workers like the civilengineer working in theconstruction companyaccount for 15 per cent ofIndia’s workforce. When aworker is engaged bysomeone or an enterpriseand paid his or her wageson a regular basis, they areknown as regular salaried employees.
Look at Chart 7.1:
you will notice that selfemploymentis a major source oflivelihood for both men and women asthis category accounts for more than50 per cent of the workforce in bothdiagrams. Casual wage work is thesecond major source for both men andwomen, more so for the latter(37 per cent). When it comes to regular
salaried employment, men are found tobe so engaged in greater proportion.They form 18 per cent whereas womenform only 8 per cent. One of the reasonscould be skill requirement. Since regularsalaried jobs require skills and a higherlevel of literacy, women might not havebeen engaged to a great extent.
When we compare the distributionof workforce in rural and urban areasin Chart 7.2 you will notice that the selfemployedand casual wage labourersare found more in rural areas than in urban areas. In the latter, both selfemployedand regular wage salariedjobs are greater. In the former, sincemajority of those depending on farmingown plots of land and cultivateindependently, the share of selfemployedis greater.
The nature of work in urban areasis different. Obviously everyone cannotrun factories, shops and offices ofvarious types. Moreover enterprises inurban areas require workers on aregular basis.
7.5 EMPLOYMENT INFIRMS, FACTORIESAND OFFICES
In the course ofeconomic development ofa country, labour flowsfrom agriculture andother related activities toindustry and services. Inthis process, workersmigrate from rural tourban areas. Eventually,at a much later stage,the industrial sector begins to lose itsshare of total employment as the servicesector enters a period of rapidexpansion. This shift can be understoodby looking at the distribution ofworkers by industry. Generally, wedivide all economic activities into eightdifferent industrial divisions. They are(i) Agriculture (ii) Mining and Quarrying(iii) Manufacturing (iv) Electricity, Gasand Water Supply (v) Construction (vi)Trade (vii) Transport and Storage and(viii) Services. For simplicity, all the working persons engaged in thesedivisions can be clubbed into threemajor sectors viz. (a) primary sector which includes (i) and (ii) (b) secondarysector which includes (iii), (iv) and (v)and (c) service sector which includesdivisions (vi), (vii) and (viii). Table 7.2shows the distribution of workingpersons in different industries duringthe year 1999-2000.
Primary sector is the main sourceof employment for majority of workers
in India. Secondary sector providesemployment to only about 16 per centof workforce. About 24 per cent ofworkers are in the service sector. Table 7.2 also shows that more than threefourth of the workforce in rural Indiadepends on agriculture and miningand quarrying. About 10 per cent ofrural workers are working inmanufacturing industries, constructionand other divisions. Service sectorprovides employment to only about 13per cent of rural workers. Agricultureand mining is not a major source ofemployment in urban areas wherepeople are mainly engaged in theservice sector. About 60 per cent ofurban workers are in the servicesector. The secondary sector givesemployment to about 30 per cent ofurban workforce.
Though both men and womenworkers are concentrated in theprimary sector, women workers’concentration is very high there. Morethan three-fourth of the femaleworkforce is employed in the primarysector whereas only half of males workin that sector. Men get opportunities inboth secondary and service sectors.
7.6 GROWTH AND CHANGING STRUCTUREOF EMPLOYMENT
In Chapters 2 and 3, you might havestudied about the planning strategiesin detail. Here we will look at twodevelopmental indicators — growth ofemployment and GDP. Fifty years ofplanned development have been aimedat expansion of the economy throughincrease in national product andemployment.
During the period 1960–2000,Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Indiagrew positively and was higher thanthe employment growth. However,there was always fluctuation in thegrowth of GDP. During this period,employment grew at a stable rate ofabout 2 per cent.
Chart 7.3 also points at anotherdisheartening development in the late1990s: employment growth starteddeclining and reached the level ofgrowth that India had in the earlystages of planning. During these years,we also find a widening gap betweenthe growth of GDP and employment.This means that in the Indian economy,without generating employment, wehave been able to produce more goods and services. Scholars refer to thisphenomenon as jobless growth.
So far we have seen howemployment has grown in comparisonto GDP. Now it is necessary to knowhow the growth pattern of employmentand GDP affected different sections ofworkforce. From this we will also beable to understand what types ofemployment are generated in ourcountry.
Let us look at two indicators thatwe have seen in the preceding sections— employment of people in variousindustries and their status. We knowthat India is an agrarian nation; amajor section of population lives inrural areas and is dependent onagriculture as their main livelihood.
Developmental strategies in manycountries, including India, have aimedat reducing the proportion of peopledepending on agriculture.
Distribution of workforce byindustrial sectors shows substantialshift from farm work to non-farm work(see Table 7.3). In 1972-73, about 74per cent of workforce was engaged inprimary sector and in 1999-2000, thisproportion has declined to 60 per cent.Secondary and service sectors areshowing promising future for theIndian workforce. You may notice thatthe shares of these sectors haveincreased from 11 to 16 per cent and15 to 24 per cent respectively.
The distribution of workforce indifferent status indicates that over the
last three decades (1972-2000),people have moved from selfemploymentand regular salariedemployment to casual wage work. Yetself-employment continues to be themajor employment provider. Scholarscall this process of moving from self-employment and regularsalaried employment to casual wagework as casualisation of workforce.This makes the workers highlyvulnerable. How? Look at the casestudy of Ahmedabad in the precedingsection.
7.7 INFORMALISATION OF INDIANW O R K F O R C E
In the previous section we have foundthat the proportion of casual labourershas been increasing. One of theobjectives of development planning inIndia, since India’s independence, hasbeen to provide decent livelihood to itspeople. It has been envisaged that theindustrialisation strategy would bringsurplus workers from agriculture toindustry with better standard of livingas in developed countries. We have seenin the preceding section, that even after55 years of planned development,three-fifth of Indian workforce dependson farming as the major source oflivelihood.
Economists argue that, over theyears, the quality of employment hasbeen deteriorating. Even after workingfor more than 10-20 years, why do someworkers not get maternity benefit,provident fund, gratuity and pension?Why does a person working in theprivate sector get a lower salary ascompared to another person doing thesame work but in the public sector?
You may find that a small sectionof Indian workforce is getting regularincome. The government, through itslabour laws, protects them in variousways. This section of the workforceforms trade unions, bargains withemployers for better wages and othersocial security measures. Who arethey? To know this we classifyworkforce into two categories: workersin formal and informal sectors, whichare also referred to as organised andunorganised sectors. All the publicsector establishments and thoseprivate sector establishments whichemploy 10 hired workers or more arecalled formal sector establishments andthose who work in such establishmentsare formal sector workers. All otherenterprises and workers working inthose enterprises form the informalsector. Thus, informal sector includesmillions of farmers, agriculturallabourers, owners of small enterprisesand people working in those enterprisesas also the self-employed who do nothave any hired workers.
Those who are working in the formalsector enjoy social security benefits.
Box 7.1: Formal Sector Employment
The information relating to employment in the formal sector is collected by theUnion Ministry of Labour through employment exchanges located in differentparts of the country. Do you know who is the major employer in the formalsector in India? In 2001, out of about 28 million formal sector workers, about20 million workers were employed by the public sector. Here also men formthe majority, as women constitute only about one-sixth of the formal sectorworkforce. Economists point out that the reform process initiated in the early1990s resulted in a decline in the number of workers employed in the formalsector. What do you think?
They earn more than those in theinformal sector. Developmentalplanning envisaged that as the economygrows, more and more workers wouldbecome formal sector workers and theproportion of workers engaged in theinformal sector would dwindle.But what has happened in India?Look at the followingchart which givesthe distribution ofworkforce in formaland informal sectors.In Section 7.2, welearnt that there areabout 400 millionworkers in the country.Look at Chart 7.4. Thereare about 28 millionworkers in the formalsector. Can youestimate the percentageof people employed in
1the formal sectors in the country? Aboutseven per cent (28/400×100)! Thus, therest 93 per cent are in the informalsector. Out of 28 million formal sectorworkers, only 4.8 million, that is, only17 per cent (4.8/28×100) are women.In the informal sector, male workersaccount for 69 per cent of the workforce.
Ahmedabad is a prosperous city with its wealth based on the produce of morethan 60 textile mills with a labour force of 1,50,000 workers employed in them.These workers had, over the course of the century, acquired a certain degreeof income security. They hadsecure jobs with a livingwage; they were covered bysocial security schemesprotecting their health andold age. They had a strongtrade union which not onlyrepresented them indisputes but also ranactivities for the welfare ofworkers and their families.In the early 1980s, textilemills all over the countrybegan to close down. In someplaces, such as Mumbai,the mills closed rapidly. InAhmedabad, the process ofclosure was long drawn outand spread over 10 years.Over this period, approximately over 80,000 permanent workers and over 50,000non-permanent workers lost their jobs and were driven to the informal sector.The city experienced an economic recession and public disturbances, especiallycommunal riots. A whole class of workers was thrown back from the middleclass into the informal sector, into poverty. There was widespread alcoholismand suicides, children were withdrawn from school and sent to work.
Source: Renana Jhabvala, Ratna M. Sudarshan and Jeemol Unni (Ed.) InformalEconomy at Centre Stage: New Structures of Employment, SagePublications, New Delhi, 2003, pp.265.
Since the late 1970s, manydeveloping countries, including India,started paying attention to enterprisesand workers in the informal sector asemployment in the formal sector is notgrowing. Workers and enterprises in theinformal sector do not get regular income;they do not have any protection or regulation from the government. Workersare dismissed without any compensation.Technology used in the informal sectorenterprises is outdated; they also do notmaintain any accounts. Workers of thissector live in slums and are squatters.Of late, owing to the efforts of theInternational Labour Organisation (ILO),
the Indian government has initiated themodernisation of informal sectorenterprises and provision of social securitymeasures to informal sectorworkers.
You might have seen peoplelooking for jobs innewspapers. Some look fora job through friendsand relatives. In manycities, you might findpeople standing in someselect areas looking forpeople to employ themfor that day’s work. Somego to factories and officesand give their bio-data
and ask whether there is any vacancyin their factory or office. Many inthe rural areas do not go out and
ask for a job but stay home whenthere is no work. Some go toemployment exchanges and registerthemselves for vacancies notifiedthrough employment exchanges. NSSOdefines unemployment as a situationin which all those who, owing to lackof work, are not working buteither seek work through employmentexchanges, intermediaries, friends orrelatives or by making applications toprospective employers or express theirwillingness or availability for workunder the prevailing condition of workand remunerations. There are a varietyof ways by which an unemployedperson is identified. Economists defineunemployed person as one who is notable to get employment of even onehour in half a day.
There are three sources of data onunemployment : Reports of Census ofIndia, National Sample SurveyOrganisation’s Reports of Employmentand Unemployment Situation and
Directorate General ofEmployment and TrainingData of Registration withEmployment Exchanges.Though they providedifferent estimates ofunemployment, they doprovide us with theattributes of theunemployed and thevariety of unemploymentprevailing in our country.Do we have differenttypes of unemploymentin our economy? Thesituation described in thefirst paragraph of this section is calledopen unemployment. Economists callunemployment prevailing in Indianfarms as disguised unemployment.What is disguised unemployment?Suppose a farmer has four acres of landand he actually needs only two workersand himself to carry out variousoperations on his farm in a year, but ifhe employs five workers and his familymembers such as his wife and children,this situation is known as disguisedunemployment. One study conductedin the late 1950s showed about onethirdof agriculture workers in India asdisguisedly unemployed.
You may have noticed that manypeople migrate to an urban area, pickup a job and stay there for some time,but come back to their home villagesas soon as the rainy season begins.Why do they do so? This is becausework in agriculture is seasonal; thereare no employment opportunities in thevillage for all months in the year. When
there is no work to do on farms, mengo to urban areas and look for jobs.This kind of unemployment is knownas seasonal unemployment. This is alsoa common form of unemploymentprevailing in India.
Though we have witnessed slowgrowth of employment, have you seenpeople being unemployed over a verylong time? Scholars says that in India,people cannot remain completelyunemployed for very long because theirdesperate economic condition wouldnot allow them to be so. You will ratherfind them being forced to accept jobsthat nobody else would do, unpleasantor even dangerous jobs in unclean,unhealthy surroundings. Thegovernment has taken manyinitiatives to generate acceptable
1employment, ensuring atleast minimal safety andjob satisfaction, throughvarious measures. Thesewill be discussed in thefollowing section.
7.9 GOVERNMENT ANDEMPLOYMENTGENERATION
Recently the governmentpassed an Act inParliament known asthe National RuralEmployment GuaranteeAct 2005. It promises 100days of guaranteedwage employment toall adult members of ruralhouseholds who volunteerto do unskilled manual work. Thefamilies, which are living below povertyline, will be covered under the scheme.This scheme is one of the many measuresthat the government implements togenerate employment for those who arein need of jobs in rural areas.
Since independence, the Union andstate governments have playedan important role in generatingemployment or creating opportunities foremployment generation. Their efforts canbe broadly categorised into two — directand indirect. In the first category, as youhave seen in the preceding section,government employs people in variousdepartments for administrativepurposes. It also runs industries, hotelsand transport companies and henceprovides employment directly to workers.
When output of goods and services fromgovernment enterprises increases, thenprivate enterprises that supply materialsto government enterprises will also raisetheir output and hence increase thenumber of employment opportunities inthe economy. For example, when agovernment owned steel companyincreases its output, it will result in directincrease in employment in thatgovernment company. Simultaneously,private companies, which supply inputsto the government steel company andpurchase steel from it, will also increasetheir output and thus employment. Thisis the indirect generation of employmentopportunities in the economy.
In Chapter 4, you would havenoticed that many programmes thatthe government implements, aimed atalleviating poverty, are throughemployment generation. They are alsoknown as employment generationprogrammes. All these programmesaim at providing not only employmentbut also services in areas such asprimary health, primary education,rural shelter, rural drinking water,nutrition, assistance for people to buyincome and employment generatingassets, development of communityassets by generating wage employment,construction of houses and sanitation,assistance for constructing houses,laying of rural roads, development ofwastelands/degraded lands.
There has been a change in thestructure of workforce in India. Newly emerging jobs are found mostly in theservice sector. The expansion of theservice sector and the advent of hightechnology now frequently permit ahighly competitive existence forefficient small scale and oftenindividual enterprises or specialistworkers side by side with themultinationals. Outsourcing of workis becoming a common practice. Itmeans that a big firm finds itprofitable to close down some of itsspecialist departments (for example,legal or computer programming orcustomer service sections) andhand over a large number of smallpiecemeal jobs to very smallenterprises or specialist individuals,sometimes situated even in othercountries. The traditional notion of themodern factory or office, as a result,has been altering in such a mannerthat for many the home is becomingthe workplace. All of this change hasnot gone in favour of the individualworker. The nature of employmenthas become more informal with onlylimited availability of social securitymeasures to the workers. Moreover, inthe last two decades, there has beenrapid growth in the gross domesticproduct, but without simultaneousincrease in employment opportunities.This has forced thegovernment to take up initiatives ingenerating employment opportunitiesparticularly in the rural areas.
1. Who is a worker?
2. Define worker-population ratio.
3. Are the following workers — a beggar, a thief, a smuggler, a gambler?Why?
4. Find the odd man out (i) owner of a saloon (ii) a cobbler (iii) a cashierin Mother Dairy (iv) a tuition master (v) transport operator(vi) construction worker.
5. The newly emerging jobs are found mostly in the sector(service/manufacturing).
6. An establishement with four hired workers is known as(formal/informal) sector establishment.
7. Raj is going to school. When he is not in school, you will find himworking in his farm. Can you consider him as a worker? Why?
8. Compared to urban women, more rural women are found working.Why?
9. Meena is a housewife. Besides taking care of household chores, sheworks in the cloth shop which is owned and operated by her husband.Can she be considered as a worker? Why?
10. Find the odd man out (i) rickshaw puller who works under a rickshawowner (ii) mason (iii) mechanic shop worker (iv) shoeshine boy.
11. The following table shows distribution of workforce in India for theyear 1972-73. Analyse it and give reasons for the nature of workforcedistribution. You will notice that the data is pertaining to the situationin India 30 years ago!
13. Why are regular salaried employees more in urban areas than inrural areas?
14. Why are less women found in regular salaried employment?
15. Analyse the recent trends in sectoral distribution of workforce in India.
16. Compared to the 1970s, there has hardly been any change in thedistribution of workforce across various industries. Comment.
17. Do you think that in the last 50 years, employment generated in thecountry is commensurate with the growth of GDP in India? How?
18. Is it necessary to generate employment in the formal sector ratherthan in the informal sector? Why?
19. Victor is able to get work only for two hours in a day. Rest of the day,he is looking for work. Is he unemployed? Why? What kind of jobscould persons like Victor be doing?
20. You are residing in a village. If you are asked to advice the villagepanchayat, what kinds of activities would you suggest for theimprovement of your village which would also generate employment.
21. Who is a casual wage labourer?
22. How will you know whether a worker is working in the informal sector?
1. Select a region, say a street or colony, and divide it into 3-4sub-regions. Conduct a survey by which you can collect the detailsof activity each person living there is engaged in. Derive theworker-population ratio for all the regions. Interpret the results fordifferences in worker-population ratio for the different sub-regions.
2. Suppose 3-4 groups of students are given different regions of a state.One region is mainly engaged in cultivation of paddy. In another region,coconut is the main plantation. The third region is a coastal regionwhere fishing is the main activity. The fourth region has a river nearbywith a lot of livestock rearing activities. Ask all the four groups todevelop a report on what kind of employment could be generated inthe four regions.
3. Visit the local library and ask for Employment News, a weekly publishedby the Government of India. Go through each issue for the last twomonths. There will be seven issues. Select 25 advertisements and fill in the following table (expand the table as needed). Discuss thenature of jobs in the classroom.
4. You might notice, in your locality, a variety of works being done bythe government, for example laying of roads, desilting of tanks,construction of school buildings, hospital and other governmentoffices, construction of check dams and houses for the poor etc.Prepare a critical assessment report on one such activity. The issuescovered could be the following (i) how the work was identified (ii)amount sanctioned (iii) contribution of local people, if any (iv) numberof persons involved — both men and women (v) wages paid (vi) is itreally required in that area and other critical comments on theimplementation of the scheme under which the work is being carriedout.
5. In recent years, you may have noticed that many voluntaryorganisations also take initiatives to generate employment in hillyand dry land regions. If you find such initiatives in your locality, visitand prepare a report.
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