GIST OF THE LESSON
1. Positive and negative charges: The charge acquired by a glass rod when rubbed with silk is called positive charge and the charge acquired by an ebonite rod when rubbed with wool is called negative charge.
2. Coulomb: It is the S.I. unit of charge. One coulomb is defined as that amount of charge which repels an equal and similar charge with a force of 9 x 109 N when placed in vacuum at a distance of 1 meter from it.
Charge on an electron = 1.6 x 1019 coulomb.
3. Static and current electricities: Static electricity deals with the electric charges at rest while the current electricity deals with the electric charges in motion.
4. Conductor: A substance which allows passage of electric charges through it easily is called a ‘conductor’. A conductor offers very low resistance to the flow of current. For example copper, silver, aluminium etc.
5. Insulator: A substance that has infinitely high resistance does not allow electric current to flow through it. It is called an ‘insulator’. For example rubber, glass, plastic, ebonite etc.
6. Electric current: The flow of electric charges across a crosssection of a conductor constitutes an electric current. It is defined as the rate of flow of the electric charge through any section of a conductor.
Electric current = Charge/Time or I = Q/t Electric current is a scalar quantity.
7. Ampere: It is the S.I. unit of current. If one coulomb of charge flows through any section of a conductor in one second, then current through it is said to be one ampere.
1 ampere = 1 coulomb/1 second
or
1 A = 1C/1s = 1Cs1 1 milliampere = 1 mA = 103 A
1 microampere = 1µA = 106 A
8. Electric circuit: The closed path along which electric current flows is called an ‘electric circuit’.
9. Conventional current: Conventionally, the direction of motion of positive charges is taken as the direction of current. The direction of conventional current is opposite to that of the negatively charged electrons.
10. Electric field: It is the region around a charged body within which its influence can be experienced.
11. Electrostatic potential: Electrostatic potential at any point in an electric field is defined as the amount of work done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to that point. Its unit is volt. Positive charges move from higher to lower potential regions. Electrons, being negatively charged, move from lower to higher potential regions.
12. Potential difference between two points: The Potential difference between two points in an electric field is the amount of work done in bringing a unit positive charge from one to another.
Potential difference = Work done/Charge or V = W/Q
13. One volt potential difference: The Potential difference between two points in an electric field is said to one volt if one joule of work has to be done in bringing a positive charge of one coulomb from one point to another.
1 volt = 1 joule/1 coulomb or 1 V = 1J/1C
14. Galvanometer: It is device to detect current in an electric circuit.
15. Ammeter: It is device to measure current in a circuit. It is always connected in series in a circuit.
16. Voltmeter: It is a device to measure potential difference. It is always connected in parallel to the component across which the potential difference is to be measured.
17. Ohm’s law: This law states that the current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference cross its ends, provided the physical conditions like temperature, density etc. remains unchanged.
V α I or V = RI
The proportionality constant R is called resistance of conductor.
18. Resistance: It is a property of a conductor by virtue of which it opposes the flow of current through it. It is equal to the ratio of the potential difference applied across its ends and the current flowing through it.
Resistance = Potential difference/Current or R = V/I
19. Ohm: It is the S.I. unit of resistance. A conductor has a resistance of one ohm if a current of one ampere flows through it on applying a potential difference of one volt across its ends.
1 ohm = 1 volt/1 ampere or 1Ω = 1V/1A
20. Factors on which resistance of a conductor depends: The resistance R of a conductor depends
i) Directly on its length L i.e. R α L.
ii) inversely on its area of crosssection A i.e. R α 1/A
iii) on the nature of material of the conductor on.
On combining the above factors, we get R α L/A R = ρ * L/A The proportionality constant ρ is called resistivity of conductor.
21. Resistivity: It is defined as the resistance offered by a cube of a material of side 1 m when current flows perpendicular to its opposite faces. Its S.I. unit is ohmmeter (Ωm). Resistivity, ρ = RA/L
22. Equivalent resistance: If a single resistance can replace the combination of resistances in such a manner that the current in the circuit remains unchanged, then that single resistance is called the equivalent resistance.
23. Laws of resistances in series:
i) Current through each resistance is same.
ii) Total voltage across the combination = Sum of the voltage drops. V= V1 + V2 + V3
iii) Voltage drops across any resistor is proportional to its resistance. V1 = IR1, V2 = IR2, V3 = IR3 iv) Equivalent resistance = Sum of the individual resistances. Rs = R1 + R2 + R3 v) Equivalent resistance is larger than the largest individual resistance.
24. Laws of resistances in parallel:
i) Voltage across each resistance is same and is equal to the applied voltage.
ii) Total current = Sum of the currents through the individual resistances. I = I1 + I2 + I3
iii) Currents through various resistances are inversely proportional to the individual resistances.
I1 = V/R1, I2 = V/R2, I3 = V/R3
iv) Reciprocal of equivalent resistance = Sum of reciprocals of individual resistances. 1/Rp = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
v) Equivalent resistance is less than the smallest individual resistance.
25. Joule’s law of heating: It states that the heat produced in a conductor is directly proportional to
(i) the square of the current I through it
(ii) proportional to its resistances R and
(iii) the time t for which current is passed. Mathematically, it can be expressed as H = I2Rt joule = I2Rt/4.18 cal or H = VIt joule = VIt/4.18cal
26. Electric energy: It is the total work done in maintaining an electric current in an electric circuit for given time.
Electric energy, W = VIt = I2Rt joule
27. Electrical power: Electrical power is the rate at which electric energy is consumed by an appliance.
P = W/t = VI = I2R = V2/R
28. Watt: It is the S.I. unit of power. The power of an appliance is 1 watt if one ampere of current flows through it on applying a potential differences of 1 volt across its ends.
1 watt = 1 joule/1 second =1 volt x 1 ampere or 1 W = 1 Js1 = 1 VA 1 kilowatt = 1000 W
29. Kilowatt hour: It is the commercial unit of electrical energy. One kilowatt hour is the electric energy consumed by an appliance of 1000 watts when used for one hour.
1 kilowatt hour (kWh) = 3.6 x 106 J
ELECTRICITY
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT I
Q. PAPER
MARKS30 TIME 70 MINUTES
Instructions:
 Questions : 1 to 5 – 1 Mark each
 Questions : 6 to 9 – 2 Marks each
 Questions : 10 to 13 – 3 Marks each
 Question 14 – 5 Marks
1  Define resistivity of material.  
2  What is the power of torch bulb rated at 2.5V and 500mA?  
3  Why series arrangement not used for connecting domestic electrical appliances in a circuit?  
4  Which has higher resistance – a 50W bulb or a 2.5W bulb and how many times?  
5  What is the direction of flow of conventional current?  
6  Why is it not advisable to handle electrical appliances with wet hands?  
7  Two electric bulbs marked 100W 220V and 200W 200V have tungsten filament of same length. Which of the two bulbs will have thicker filament?  
8  How does the resistance of a wire vary with its area of cross section?  
9  Draw the following symbols  
10  i) Battery  ii) Switch closed 
11  iii) Resistor of resistance R  iv) Voltmeter 
12  A geyser is rated 1500W, 250V. This geyser is connected to 250V mains. Calculate –i) The current drawnii) The energy consumed in 50hrs.iii) The cost of energy consumed at Rs. 2.20 per kWh.  
13  What is the function of an electric fuse? Name the material used for making fuse. In household circuit where is fuse connected?  
14  Write one important advantage of using alternative current. How alternating current differ from direct current?  
15  What is the difference between short circuiting and overloading?  
16  a) Draw diagram showing three resistors R_{1}, R_{2} and R_{3} in series.b) Two resistors of resistance 4W and 12Wi) In parallelii) In seriesCalculate the values of effective resistance in each case. 
HOTS QUESTIONS (SOLVED / UNSOLVED) 

Q.1.  Why is the tungsten metal more coiled in the bulb and not installed in straight parallel wire form?  
Ans.  The coiled wire of tungsten increases the surface area of the wire in very less space so as to emit more light and helps in glowing with more intensity.  
Q.2.  Why are fairy decorative lights always connected in parallel?  
Ans.  When the fairy lights are connected in series the resistance offered will be greater and brightness of the bulbs will be affected. But in parallel connection all the bulbs will glow with same intensity and if any more bulbs gets fused the other bulbs will continue to glow.  
Q.3.  What will happen when a) Voltmeter is connected in series?b) Ammeter is connected in parallel?  
Ans.  a) Negligible current will pass through the circuit because the voltmeter has a very high resistance.b) Ammeter will get damaged due to flow of large amount of current through it, because it has low resistance.
CROSSWORD PUZZLE ELECTRICITY

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