1) Reproduction: process by which living organism produce new individual of their own kind.

2) Creation of DNA copy: when the cell divides into two, each new cell gets a copy of each DNA or chromosomes.

3) Importance of variation: variations are created by DNA copying mechanism during sexual reproduction.

4) Asexual modes of reproduction:
a) Fission—binary & multiple fission
b) Fragmentation
c) Regeneration
d) Budding
e) Vegetative propagation
f) Spore formation

5) Sexual reproduction-
a) In flowering plant
b) In human beings

6) Parts of flowers

7) Pollination: self and cross pollination

8) Fertilization: male and female germ cell fuses to form zygote.

9) Puberty: The age, when reproductive organs become functional,(in female 10-12 years, in male 13-14 years).

10) Male reproductive system in human beings.

11) Female reproductive system in human beings.

12) Reproductive health-
a) To have awareness about STDs, (sexually transmitted disease).
b) Some common STDs are gonorrhea, syphilis & HIV-AIDS.

13) Contractive methods: to avoid pregnancy-

a) barrier method b) chemical methods c) surgical methods


Very short answer type question:

Note: each question carries 1 mark.

1) What is reproduction?
2) Have you seen seeds of rose or potato? Name some plants whose seeds you may have seen.
3) Can an amoeba and hydra reproduce like human beings?
4) What changes are observed in the uterus if fertilization occurs?
5) Define fertilization?

Short answer type questions

Note: each question carries two marks:

1) In the human body, what is the role of (a) seminal vesicles (b) prostate gland?
2) State the difference between menarche and menopause?
3) What is variation? Mention the importance of DNA copying in reproduction.


1) Give two reasons for the appearance or variation among the progeny formed by sexual reproduction.
2) Colonies of yeast fail to multiply in water but multiply in sugar solution. Give one reason.
3) Malaria parasite divides into many daughter individual simultaneously through multiple fission. State an advantage the parasite gets because of this type of reproduction.
4) What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction?
5) How does reproduction help in providing stability to population of species?
6) Why is vegetative propagation practised for growing some types of plants?
7) Why would be the reason for adopting contraceptive methods ?
8) Name those parts of flower , which serve the same function as the following do in the animals a) testies b) Eggs, c) Ovary ,d) Sperms.

Activity- to grow rhizopus & prepare its temporary slide.

Aim: to show asexual reproduction in an organism.

App: slice of bread, water, box, slide, cover slip.

Procedure: children grow rhizopus on slice of bread and make a temporary slide.

Project: 1.a) To study manner of vegetative reproduction in some commercially useful plants.

b) To study the seeds during sprouting period.

2. How do organisms reproduce.

1.Seprating the various parts of any 5 flowers displaying and comparing them.
2.Growing some plants by vegetative propagation.

Seminars: reproductive health and sexually transmitted disease: children form groups and discuss.

Symposium: gender related problems: female infanticide.

Group discussion: if there was no sexual reproduction…..

Debate: is it necessary to learn about reproductive health from class VII?

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