Roadways :

India has one of the largest road networks in the world. Its importance can be viewed.

  • Construction cost of roads is much lower.
  • Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
  • Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slope & as such can traverse mountains.
  • It is economical.
  • It provides door to door services.
  • It is used as feeder to other modes of transport.

Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways

  • The Govt. has launched a major road development project linking DelhiKolkata-Chennai-Mumbai & Delhi by six-lane super highways.
  • The North-South corridors linking Srinagar [Jammu & Kashmir] & Kanyakumari [T.N.] & East-West Corridor Connecting silcher (Assam) & Porbander (Gujarat). The major objective of these super highways is to reduce time & distance.


  • The distribution pattern of the railway network in the country has been largely influence by physiographic, economic and administrative factors.
  • The Himalyan mountains regions are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief sparse population & each of economic opportunities.
  • The northern plains provide most favourable condition having high population density.
  • Rivers also create problem for lay down of railway tracts.


Pipelines transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India. Its initial cost is high but subsequent running costs are minimal. It is used for transporting crude oil, petroleum product & natural gas.

Important Networks

  • Oil field in Assam to Kanpur (U.P.), via Guwahati, Barauni & Allahabad.
  • From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar. In Punjab via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi & Panipat.
  • Gas pipelines from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in UP via Vijaypur in Madhya Pradesh.

International Trade :

  • The exchange of goods among people; states & countries is referred to as trade. Trade between two countries is called International Trade.
  • Exports and imports are the components of trade. The balance of a trade of a country is the difference b/w its export and import.
  • When the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, it is called favourable balance of trades.

Tourism as a Trade 

Tourism has proved itself as one of the most important. aspect of trade.
Tourism in India has grown substantially. It helps as

  • Promotion of National Integration.
  • Provide support to local handicrafts
  • Provides support to cultural pursuits.
  • Development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.

Important Questions

1. Critically examine how roadways are more imp. than railways.
2. What is the importance of super-highways in our national economy.
3. Describe the factors affecting the distribution of Railway network.
4. What are merits and demerits of pipelines?
5. Explain the three important network of pipelines in India.
6. What do you mean by balance trade? taking into account India’s trade?
7. Suggest some measures to promote tourism in India?

Class X Social Science All Topics Notes

ATSE 2019 | Scholarship Worth 12 Lac Apply Now!!