Technological and Institutional reforms :

  • Consolidation of holdings, co-operation and abolition of zamidari, etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
  • Land reform was the main focus of our first five year plan.
  • The green revolution based on the use of package technology and the white revolution (operation flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improves the lot of Indian agriculture.
  • Development in few selected areas. In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development progreamme was initiated, which includes both institutional and technological reforms.
  • Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease.
  • Establishment of Grameen Banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
  • Kissan credit cards and personal accident insurance schemes introduced.
  • Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on radio and T.V.
  • The government also announces minimum support price.
  • Remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middleman.

Contribution of Agricultures to the National Economy, Employment and Output :

  • Agriculture backbone of Indian Economy.
  • Share in the gross domestic product.
  • Providing employment.
  • Livelihood to the population.
  • The government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture.
  • Establishment of Indian council of Agricultural Research, agricultural universities.
  • Veterinary services and animal breading centres.
  • Horticulture development.
  • Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast.

Important Questions :

1. Describe the technological and institutional reforms done in agriculture.
2. What is package technology?
3. Why government provides crop insurance to the farmers?
4. What is the role of agriculture in Indian economy?
5. How Indian agriculture may be modernised?
6. What is the objective behind weather forecasting far farmers on TV. and Radio?
7. What is land consolidation? Why it was implemented?
8. Why government announces minimum support price for farmers?

Class X Social Science All Topics Notes