Public / Private Division

  • In fact the majority of women do some sort of paid work in addition to domestic labour. But their work is not valued and does not get recognition.
  • Although women constitute half of the humanity, their role in public life especially politics, is minimal in most societies.
  • Women in different parts of the world organised and agitated for equal rights. There were agitation demanded enhancing the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and other opportunities. More radical women movements aimed at equality in personal and family life as well. These movements are called feminist movements.

Patriarchal Society : Mostly societies are male dominating even day to day participation of women may increase than also our society is a patriarchal society on the basis of :

  • Literacy rate
  • No wonder the proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small.
  • Her work is not paid and therefore often not valued.
  • Women are paid less than men.
  • Girl child aborted before she is born.
  • various kinds of harassment, exploitation and violence against women. Religion, Communalism and Politics
  • Unlike gender differences, the religious differences are often expressed in the field of politics.
  • Communalism happens when beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to thoseof other religions, when the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and when state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest. This manner of using religious in politics is communal politics.

Communalism can take various forms in politics

  • Stereo types of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
  • A desire to form a separate political unit.
  • Often involves special appeal to the interests in preference to others.
  • Ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. Secular State
  • No official religion – constitution does not give a special status to any religion.
  • Freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.
  • The constitution prohibits discrimination on ground of religion.
  • Allows the state to intervene is the matter of religion.
  • Ensure equality within religious communities.

Caste and Politics

  • They keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes.
  • Political parties and candidates in elections make appeals to caste sentiments to muster support.
  • No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste.
  • No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or community.

Important Questions

1. What do you mean by division of sex?
2. What do you mean by Feminism?
3. What do you mean by communal politics?
4. Mention any two constitutional provisions that make. India a secular state?
5. What sexual division of labour?
6. State different forms of communal politics with one example each.

Class X Social Science All Topics Notes