Features of Federalism

  • There are two or more levels of Govt.
  • Different tiers of Govt. govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
  • The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of Govt are specified in the constitution.
  • Require the consent of both the levels of Govt.
  • Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of Govt.
  • An ideal federal system has both aspects : mutual trust and agreement to live together.
  • The first route involves independent states coming together on their own to form a bigger unit.
  • The second route is where a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent states and the national Govt.

Federalism in India

  • The constitution originally provided for a two tier system of Govt the union Govt or what we call the Central Govt, representing the union of India and the state Govt. later, a third tier of federalism was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities.
  • Constitution clearly provided a three fold distribution of legislative powers between the union Govt and the state Govt :
    1. Union list : Defence of the country foreign affairs, banking.
    2. State List : Police, trade, commerce, agriculture.
    3. Concurrent List : Education, Forest, Trade Union, Marriage.
    4. Residuary Subject : Computer software
  • Only Jammu & Kashmir has their own constitution.

Decentralization in India

  • When power is taken away from central and State Govt. and given to local Govt. it is called decentralisation.
  • The basic idea behind decentralisation is that there are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level.
  • Local govt. get constitutional importance in democracy.
  • And representation of women may also increased with this role played by women in democracy became more stronger.

Important Questions

1. What do you mean by Federalism?
2. What do you mean by jurisdiction?
3. How many lists we have retated to legislative powers?
4. What do you mean by decentralisation?
5. What is the main difference between a federal form of Govt and a unitary one?
Explain with an example?
6. How power shared between Central and State Govt. in Federalism.
7. Write main features of Federal Government?

Class X Social Science All Topics Notes

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