When HaloAlkanes (alkyl halides) are heated with aqueous sodium or Potassium Hydroxide, they forms alcohols
Alcohols can be produced from Alkenes by their Hydration, by passing alkenes through concentrated H2SO4 and then hydrolysis with boiling water gives alcohols.
Mechanism: – it involves following steps
(i) Electrophilic attack by hydroxyl union on alkenes gives a carbocation intermediate :-
(ii) Nucleophilic attack by water on 20 carbocation
(iii) Deprotonation or loss of proton to form alcohol
From Hydroboration – oxidation :- B2H6 (Diborane) if C- deficient molecule it acts as an electrophilic and react with alkenes to form trialkylborates which on subsequent oxidation with alkaline H2O2 gives alcohols
From Carbonyl Compounds:-
- By reduction of aldehyde and ketones.
R – CHO reacting with H2/Ni or Na/ C2H5OH giving R – CH2 OH.
Aldehyde or LiAlH4 or NaBH4 1o alcohol
- By reduction of Carboxylic acids and esters:-
From Oxy-Mercuration DeMercuration of alkene:-
By simple addition of water to alkene reagent used in this process is mercuric acetate
Form Grignard Reagents:-
Regents are alkyl or aryl magnesium halides (R – MgX)
Basic magnesium halide
Example : From aldehyde gives alcohol
Hydrolysis of ester
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