• In a mixture of two solutions, the solution with lower osmotic pressure is hypotonic while solution with higher osmotic pressure is hypertonic.
  • The outflow of fluid from the plant cells placed in a hypertonic solution is known a plasmolysis (shrinkage of plant cell).
  • At freezing point solid and liquid are in equilibrium so, they have the same vapour pressure.
  • When on cooling a solution to its freezing point, the crystals of solvent are separated first.
  • Semi­permeable membrane is required in osmosis but not in diffusion.
  • In diffusion a substance moves from a region of its higher concentration to regions of its lower concentration.
  • In reverse osmosis, flow of solvent is from higher to lower concentration. For example, desalination of sea water.
  • Copper Ferro cyanide [Cu2Fe (CN) 6] is a chemically prepared semi­permeable membrane.
  • Plant and trees absorb water from soil by osmosis.
  • Osmotic pressure is mainly calculated by Berkley and Hartley method.
  • Townsend method is used to find the osmotic pressure of non-aqueous solution without using semipermeable membrane.
  • 6% urea solutions and 0.1 M glucose solutions are iso­tonic.
  • The mole fraction of the more volatile component is always greater in vapour phase than in solution phase (Konowaloff rule)
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