1. To provide accurate knowledge of the most significant events and personalities of the period under study, in sequence and in context.

2. To familiarize candidates with factual evidence upon which explanations or judgements about the period must be founded.

3. To develop an understanding of the existence of problems and relevance of evidence of explanations.

4. To develop the capacity to marshal facts and evaluate evidence and to discuss issues from a historical point of view.

5. To develop the capacity to read historical views in the light of new evidence or new interpretation of evidence.

6. To foster a sense of historical continuity.

7. To encourage diminution of ethnocentric prejudices and to develop a more international approach to world history.

8. To develop the ability to express views and arguments clearly using correct terminology of the subject.

9. To familiarise candidates with various types of historical evidence and to provide some awareness of the problems involved in evaluating different kinds of source materials.


There will be one paper of three hours duration of 100 marks divided into two parts.

Part I (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short answer questions testing fundamental factual knowledge and understanding of the entire syllabus.

Part II (80 marks) will be divided into two sections, Section A and Section B, each consisting of five questions. Each question shall carry 16 marks. Candidates will be required to attempt two questions from each Section and one question from either Section A or Section B. A total of five questions will be attempted from Part II.


1. The Rise and Growth of British Power (1740-1798)

(i) Indian States and Society in the 18th century: position and interests of European trading companies in India.

This should be taught in context of the eighteenth century debate on anarchy vs dynamism and the process of transformation of English East India Company from traders to colonial masters. The break-up of the Mughal Empire (a general account) and rise of the regional powers – basic outline of the Marathas, Sikhs (excluding Ranjeet Singh), Bengal, Awadh, Mysore, Hyderabad and the Carnatic. Foreign trading companies : Portuguese and Dutch very briefly, the English and French Companies in more detail (i.e. establishment and growth of their settlements in India).

(ii) The Anglo-French struggle in the South 1740-1763.

The First, Second and Third Wars can be taught briefly, in connection with each cause of British success and French failure.

(iii) Bengal: review of main events from the accession of Siraj-ud-Daulah to the defeat of the Indian powers at Buxar (1764); impact and significance of Battles of Plassey and Buxar; political arrangement made by Robert Clive.

This should be done in some detail, emphasizing the causes of the conflict (the conflict over the abuse of trading privileges, the minting of money, etc). The significance of the two major battles should be briefly explained. Clive’s arrangements after the Treaty of Allahabad – the Grant of Diwani: the dual government and its disastrous result on Bengal: the famine should be briefly touched upon.

(iv) Growth of British power under Warren Hastings: Marathas, Mysore and Awadh.

The Regulating Act should be briefly explained as a background. Maratha, Mysore and Awadh wars to be dealt with briefly. Only reasons behind the conflict between Indian powers and the British powers and the results to be covered.

(v) Cornwallis and Mysore.

Pitt’s India Act and the policy of non-intervention should be briefly explained. An outline of the war and the terms of the Treaty of Seringapatam, its significance.

2. The Ascendancy of British Power (1798-1818)

Expansion under Lord Wellesley: subsidiary alliances, wars, annexation of territories of subordinated rulers; elimination of French threat. Appraisal.

Background to Wellesley should be briefly explained: the reasons for giving up the policy of non-intervention and the revival of the French threat. The subsidiary alliances should be done in some detail: the main terms of the alliance; the results for the States which signed; a few examples of States which did; the advantages for the British. Annexation of territories of previously subordinated rulers – just the names. The Second Maratha War – some mention of the background and events of the Peshwa’s court leading to the Treaty of Bassein – the events of the War and the results to be done very briefly. The Mysore War to be done very briefly, emphasizing the end of French threat. Short critical look at Wellesley: was the aim of paramountcy achieved?

3. Consolidation of British Power (1818-1857)

(i) Punjab: Ranjeet Singh; the causes, events and results of the Sikh Wars.

Brief outline of Ranjeet Singh’s career – the Treaty of Amritsar and its significance; a brief account of the expansion of the Sikh State under Ranjeet Singh and a very brief appraisal.

Causes, and results of the two Sikh Wars should be done in brief.

(ii) Dalhousie and the policy of annexation (1848-1856). Doctrine of Lapse – annexation of Awadh; other annexations. Dalhousie as administrator and social reformer – a critical appraisal.

The Doctrine of Lapse should be done in detail; some important states annexed under its provisions. Other annexations need to be mentioned only. The annexation of Awadh should be done in more detail, particularly its results. A very brief look at Dalhousie’s viceroyalty – a critical look at the policy of annexation and his administration.

4. Economic, Social and Cultural Impact of British Rule

(i) Disruption of traditional economy: ruin of artisans and craftsmen; impact of British revenue policy; stagnation of agriculture; development of modern industries, poverty and famines. Colonial Forest Policy – impact on local communities.

A general account of the disruptive impact of the British rule on the rural and craft economy. Revenue policy: the Permanent Settlement and Ryotwari Settlement should be done in some detail, emphasizing the reasons behind them and their results. The Forest Acts of 1860 and 1894 and their impact to be studied critically.

(ii) Development of the means of transport and communication.

Transportation: a brief look at the development of the railways – other means can simply be mentioned.

(iii) Social, Cultural Policy: Impact of the new thought in Europe on Indian administrators; humanitarian measures – contribution of Lord William Bentinck and Rammohan Roy; spread of modern education. Critical look at British policy.

The characteristics of the new thought (rationalism, liberalism, humanism, utilitarianism) to be very briefly explained as a background to change in British policy. A short account of the main humanitarian measures, emphasizing the role of reformers like Rammohan and Vidyasagar as well as British administrators. Modern education: a very brief outline of the events which led to the famous MINUTE (sic) by Macaulay and the reasons for the change in British policy, Wood’s Despatch, etc. A critical analysis of the impact of British policy.

5. The Uprisings against British Rule

(i) Early rebellions – pre 1857 revolts and civil disturbances.

A few examples may be given of the more important rebellions like the Santhal rebellion, the Wahabis and Farazis of which any one should be touched upon.

(ii) The uprising of 1857.

The causes should be done in some detail, to explain the actions of the participants in the uprising and their social composition; outbreak at Meerut and at a few other places – Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Central India (Jhansi and Gwalior). There should be a detailed discussion on the nature of the uprising with reference to different approaches; short explanation of the causes of its failure. The effect on British policy should be explained: the Crown takeover and its implications: their efforts to placate the Indians and the changes in British policy should be briefly explained.

6. Social and Cultural Awakening during the 19th Century

(i) Brahmo Samaj, Prarthana Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Theosophical Society.

The study of the Brahmo Samaj, the Arya Samaj and the Ramakrishna Mission should be done in some detail, emphasizing the contribution of the founders. Others to be covered briefly.

(ii) The Struggle against caste: Jyotiba Phule, Narayana Guru, Veerasalingam.

The struggle against caste: brief outline of the contribution of Jyotiba Phule, Narayana Guru, Veerasalingam.

(iii) Reform movements among the Muslims (Syed Ahmad Khan), Sikhs.

Syed Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh Movement, the Reform Movement among the Sikhs to be touched upon.

7. The Dawn and rise of Indian Nationalism (1885-1905)

(i) Factors promoting the rise of Indian Nationalism.

Each of the factors leading to the rise of nationalism should be discussed in some detail, particularly, the impact of British rule on different classes of Indian society, including the urban middle class. Events which quickened the growth of nationalism should also be briefly done: the Viceroyalty of Lord Lytton and the Ilbert Bill Affair.

(ii) Beginning of political agitation. Forerunners of the Indian National Congress at the provincial level.

Provincial associations: growth of political associations from 1830 onwards – examples from each Presidency, with special emphasis on the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and the Indian Association (the Indian National Conference).

(iii) The foundation of the Indian National Congress: role of Hume and official attitude towards the Congress.

Hume’s role should be studied critically, specially his motives for initiating the Congress and why the nationalists chose to follow his lead. A general look at the changing attitude of the British authorities from initial wariness/cautious support to open hostility.

(iv) The programme and achievements of the early Nationalists (Moderates).

The major demands of the Congress can be grouped under different headings: constitutional, administrative, economic in the context of the critique of colonialism, etc. A very brief and general idea of the main points of the Act of 1892. There should be a brief look at the methods they used and why they used these methods of protest. Finally, a short, critical appraisal of their activities.


8. The First World War (1914-1918)

(i) Imperialism and Colonialism. Underlying causes of the War: aggressive nationalism; economic rivalry and neo-imperialism; formation of alliances; armament race.

A brief introduction to theories of imperialism – Hobson, Lenin. Causes of War should be done in some detail, explaining how far each one of them aggravated international tensions.

(ii) Crisis leading to the outbreak of the War.

An outline of the main events from 1908 to 1914: the Moroccan crisis, the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The main interests of the big powers in the Balkans should be briefly touched upon, particularly Russia and Austria-Hungary, as well as the growth of Balkan nationalism and the two Balkan Wars; the assassination at Sarajevo and how it developed into a major European War.

(iii) Course of the First World War: Consequences of trench warfare on the Western front with reference to the battles of Marne, Somme, Verdun. The defeat of Russia on the Eastern front and its effect on World War I. Reasons for American entry and contribution to Allied victory. Factors that contributed to the defeat of the Central Powers.

General outline of the events which brought USA into the War and a brief account of its contribution.

A brief explanation of the various causes of the defeat of the Central Powers.

9. The Search for International Order between 1919-1939

(i) Peace-making after the First World War: Treaty of Versailles; the terms and German objections; merits and demerits of the settlement.

Only the terms of the Treaty of Versailles should be studied in detail; the other peace treaties should only be mentioned. Each of the German objections should be studied critically. A very brief look at the merits and demerits of the settlement in general.

(ii) The League of Nations: structure, weaknesses, successes, failures and reasons for the failure of the League.

The structure of the main organs of the League and their functions should be briefly explained; brief examples of some of the successes in the 1920s. Manchuria and Abyssinia to be dealt with as examples.

10. The Great Depression

(i) USA: The Great Boom and the Great Crash (1929) and the Depression; Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal.

The causes of the business boom of the 1920s and the fragility of the prosperity which led to the Crash should be studied in some detail. A short account of the Wall Street Crash and its impact on the economy. Hoover’s attempts to deal with the crisis should be dealt with to show how FDR’s policies were different. The main measures of the New Deal should be understood, along with the aims; a brief mention of the conflict with the Supreme Court. A critical appraisal of the New Deal.

(ii) Impact of the Great Depression on other countries – Britain, Italy, Germany and Japan.


11. The development of Communism: USSR and China

(i) The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917-main events leading up to the Revolution; Lenin: problems facing the Bolsheviks-setting up Socialist State. Stalin; the totalitarian state; Collectivisation of agriculture; Five Year Plans; critical appraisal of Stalin.

A very brief background: Russia on the eve of the Revolution (mention of the Revolution of 1905 and its results). Impact of the First World War on Russia. 1917, the year of Revolutions: a short account of the March Revolution and its results; explanation of why the Provisional Government fell from power leading up to the November Revolution.

Lenin: the main decrees of the new government, the victory in the Civil War and NEP: a brief account of each.

Stalin: a very short explanation of his coming to power. The main motivations of his policy, the implementation and results of: the collectivisation of agriculture, the FYPs (only first two should be done) and the purges. A short, critical look at his contribution.

(ii) China: From the Chinese Republic of 1911 to the era of Mao-TseTung . The Revolution of 1911; the early republic and period of warlordism; May Fourth Movement, KMT and the Communists; causes of Communist victory.

Very brief background of China in the early 20th century; the events leading to the downfall of the monarchy; just a mention of Yuan Shi Kai and the period of warlordism; Shandong provisions of Treaty of Versailles and rise of Chinese Communist Party (CCP); role of Dr. Sun Yat Sen – his alliance with the Communists; the breakdown of the alliance under Chiang kai Shek; outline of events of the KMT – Communist conflict, the Communists and the Long March to Yenan; the reasons for the truce against the Japanese. An outline of the post-war struggle and the victory of the Communists. The causes of Communist victory should be stated and briefly explained.

(iii) Establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949; Mao Tse Tung; agrarian and industrial policy; political and economic developments; contribution of Mao.

A short background of the problems facing the Communists in 1949: in agriculture, the gradual process from land distribution to collective farms should be outlined; in industry, the Five Year Plan and Soviet help. The 100 Flowers Campaign should be covered in brief. The Great Leap Forward should be covered in more detail, particularly the development of commune and assessment of the GLF. Finally, a brief outline of the Cultural Revolution and its impact on China. Estimate of Mao should be short and to the point.

(iv) A brief comparison of the two Communist systems.

A brief introduction to the theory of revolution, workers and peasants, strategy of revolution – programme/agenda for the revolution.

12. Japan: restoration to parliamentary democracy

Industrialisation, agrarian reforms, constitution of 1889, growth of political parties and parliamentary government.

Japanese foreign policy – Korea and Manchuria. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902), Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and occupation of Korea (1910).

NOTE: This is to be done as a general survey.


There will be one paper of three hours duration of 100 marks divided into two parts.

Part I (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short answer questions testing fundamental factual knowledge and understanding of the entire syllabus.

Part II (80 marks) will be divided into two sections, Section A and Section B, each consisting of five questions. Each question shall carry 16 marks. Candidates will be required to attempt two questions from each Section and one question from either Section A or Section B. A total of five questions will be attempted from Part II.


1. The Growth of Radical Nationalism (at the turn of the 20th Century)

(i) Causes of the rise of radical nationalism.

(ii) The objectives and programmes of the radical nationalists; contribution of Tilak.

(iii) Impact of Curzon’s policies; Partition of Bengal and anti-Partition Movement, leading to the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement.

(iv) Split in the Congress (1907).

General causes of the rise of radical nationalism: each cause should be thoroughly explained. Explain the events, which accelerated its growth: the Viceroyalty of Curzon for example, culminating in the anti-partition movement. This should be studied from two angles – as a movement in its own right, leading to the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement, in some detail and as aggravating the rift between the Moderates and Nationalists using radical means (very briefly). A very short account of the events at Surat.

(v) Revolutionary dispositions.

The growth of revolutionary dispositions should explain what led to this development and concentrate on some well-known organizations (e.g. Abhinav Bharat, Anushilan Samiti).

The Government attempts to woo the Moderates; a brief look at the Act of 1909.

2. Communal Factors in Indian Politics (1885-1919)

(i) Factors contributing to the rise of communalism.

(ii) The role of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh School.

Each of the factors contributing to the rise of communalism should be explained in some depth. Regarding Sayyid Ahmad Khan, both his positive and negative contribution should be emphasized in the context of the British change of policy towards Indian Muslims.

(iii) Events leading up to the foundation of the Muslim League (1906); official attitude towards the League.

The following events should be studied in the context that a section of Muslim leaders began to see themselves as a threatened minority: the Hindi-Urdu controversy; the Shimla deputation with the Muslim demands understood fully. The objectives of the League can be taken from its constitution. A brief look at the British encouragement of the League.

(iv) Impact of the First World War on Indian Politics.

A brief account of why the Congress decided to support the War effort; why the Congress decided to re-admit the nationalists using aggressive means.

A brief account of the Home Rule League. The revolutionary movement in India and abroad should be just touched upon, e.g. the Ghadar Party’s efforts, mention of Madame Cama, etc. The Congress-League Pact; the Montagu Declaration of 1917, and its promises should be explained.

3. The years of Gandhian Leadership of the National Movement

(i) The launching of the passive resistance movement by Gandhi; background and main features of the movement.

A general background of the development of Gandhian ideas of non-violence and satyagraha in South Africa. Brief summaries of the three localised satyagrahas: Champaran, Ahmedabad, and Kaira district.

(ii) Montague-Chelmsford reforms; agitation against Rowlatt Act. Jalianwala Bagh massacre (1919) and Gandhi’s first Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1922).

A general account of the 1919 Act with particular reference to dyarchy; the reasons for the Rowlatt Act and its main features in brief – both these should be seen as part of the dual policy followed by the British. A general account of the satyagraha against the Act, leading to the outrage at Jalianwala Bagh and the aftermath of it on Punjab.

The background to the launching of the Non-Cooperation Movement should explain about the origin of the Khilafat Movement, and why Gandhi decided to support it, as well as redress of the Punjab wrongs. There should be a connected chronological account of the progress of the Movement until its suspension after Chauri Chaura.

(iii) Suspension of Non-Cooperation and formation of the Swaraj party – contribution of Swarajists (1922-1927).

A very brief account of the differences between the pro-changers and no-changers; a general account of the foundation, electoral success and activities of the Swaraj Party with a quick critical appraisal.

(iv) Simon Commission: its boycott and the demand for Dominion status by 1929; Lahore session and declaration of ‘Poorna Swaraj’ as the Congress objective.

A general chronological sequence should be followed: the reasons for sending the Commission in 1927 as well as its boycott should be briefly explained. A general account of the agitation against the Commission as well as a very brief account of the Nehru Report. The Lahore Session should be set against the expiry of the deadline by the Congress; the main points of the Poorna Swaraj Resolution.

(v) The second Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934): main features; the Round Table Conference in London; deliberations and outcome.

A general, chronological account; however, some mention must be made of the main features of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The 1st and 2nd Round Table Conferences can be put very briefly in context. The resumption of the Movement, the Poona Pact (in the context of the Communal Award) should be touched upon.

(vi) An appraisal of Gandhi’s contribution to the freedom movement.

Critical assessment of Gandhi’s role in the Freedom Movement – his methodology (Satyagraha, Non-violence, mass participation, etc.).

4. The Last Phase (1935-1947)

(i) Important political developments: growth of socialist ideas, trade union activities, Kisan Sabha movement; increasing interest by Congress in world affairs; States Peoples’ struggle. Growth of communalism. Participation of women in the national movement.

These developments can be done briefly; the growth of communalism in the 1930s with the demand for a separate State for Muslims (the idea of Pakistan) should be done in more detail. Women’s awareness and participation in the National Movement to be studied.

(ii) 1935 Act and provincial autonomy: Congress ministries; rift between Congress and the League; split in the Congress; Forward Block; growth of communalism; August offer of 1940; Jinnah’s two-nation theory.

The 1935 Act can be briefly covered, except for Provincial Autonomy which should be explained in a little more detail. A critical account of the election of 1937 and Congress ministries. A brief look at the growing rift between the Congress and the Muslim League; the rift which led to the ousting of Subhash Bose should be done briefly. The outbreak of World War II and the resignation of the Congress ministries, the deadlock up to the August offer should be covered briefly.

(iii) National Movement during the Second World War: failure of Cripps Mission; Quit India resolution; arrest of Congress leaders; violent public reaction; Government repression of revolt of 1942; Subhash Chandra Bose and the INA.

Reasons for sending the Cripps Mission should be briefly explained along with the general points of his proposals. Reasons for the rejection of his proposals should lead directly to the Quit India Resolution and the reasons behind it. A compact account of the movement, its repression and a brief analysis of its significance is needed. Subhash Bose: his escape and years in Germany should be touched upon; also the background in South East Asia (the IIL/INA); his revival of the INA should be emphasized, a brief account of its operations and eventual defeat. A brief look at its significance.

(iv) Post-war struggle (1945-1947): changed attitude of British Government; the Cabinet Mission Plan proposals; Congress and League reaction; direct action by League; communal riots; Atlee’s declaration of 1947; the Mountbatten Plan; partition and independence.

Changes in the attitude of the British government after World War II – Wavell Plan and its failure: Cabinet Mission – major provisions. Election to the Constituent Assembly and the results – controversy between Congress and League over the question of grouping – Muslims League’s Direct action and boycott of Constituent Assembly – communal riots. League’s decision to join Interim Government. 1947: Atlee’s Declaration of 20th February 1947; arrival of Mountbatten – Mountbatten Plan – main features: acceptance of the Plan by major political parties; Indian Independence Act: main features. Reasons why the Congress accepted partition.

5. Post Independence India (1947- 1962)

(i) Problems of partition: causes of dispute with Pakistan.
The following problems should be discussed generally. The refugee problem, the transfer of assets and the river waters dispute; origin of the Kashmir problem. The role of Sardar Patel in reorganisation and integration of states with special reference to Junagarh, Hyderabad.

(ii) Foreign policy: Reasons for following the policy of Non- Alignment.
Reasons for following a non-aligned policy in the context of the Cold War to be discussed briefly. The Panchsheel and Bandung Conferences should be touched upon; the early years of the NAM and its main aims.


6. Fascism and Nazism

(i) Post-War discontent and the rise to power of Benito Mussolini.

Each of the conditions which gave rise to Fascism should be done in detail. A brief chronological account of the events which brought Mussolini to power from the election of 1921 to the march on Rome in October 1922.

(ii) Main features of Mussolini’s domestic policy: introduction and assessment of the Fascist State.

Detailed critical appraisal of Mussolini’s policies (particularly his economic policy).

(iii) Germany: problems facing the Weimar Republic.

The background to the creation of the Weimar Republic should be briefly covered; the weaknesses of the Weimar Republic should be covered in some detail, particularly the impact of the depression.

(iv) Rise of Hitler to power and factors assisting his rise.

A quick summary of Hitler’s background; his rise to power after his release from prison should be covered chronologically, particularly the crucial year 1932, and the backstage deal which helped him come to power, legally. The reasons for his popularity among different groups should be explained.

(v) The Nazi State: from 1933 onwards.

After becoming chancellor, a brief account of the election campaign, the Reichstag fire and its impact; outline of the changes made by him in government, the cultural life and education, army (the night of the long knives), the economy, religious life, etc. The escalation of the campaign against the Jews should be done in some detail, till the “Final Solution”.

(vi) A brief comparison of the Fascist and Nazi systems.

Background to their rise, ideologies and objectives, programmes and policies.

7. The Collapse of International Order in the 1930s

(i) Germany: Rearmament and Foreign Policy from 1933-1939.

As an introduction, the main aims of Hitler’s foreign policy should be outlined: each of the events in his foreign policy should be done in detail, along with its significance. His final miscalculation over Poland should be explained.

(ii) Japan: predominance of aggressive nationalism, militarism in the 1930s; expansion into China; anti-Comintern pact with Germany; formation of the Axis Pact, events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbour.

The political, economic and ideological reasons for the rise of militarism and the expansion into China should be explained (emphasis should be laid on the reasons for the attack on Manchuria and a brief account of it). The subsequent development can be done chronologically, emphasizing the declaration of a “New Order in East Asia” and the 1937 invasion of China. The reasons for the alliances with Italy and Germany should be briefly explained, leading to the attack on Pearl Harbour.

(iii) Italy: aggressive nationalism; invasion of Abyssinia; involvement in Spanish Civil War. Mussolini’s alliance with Hitler and its consequences.

A very brief account of Mussolini’s aims; the bare outline of his foreign policy until 1935; the reasons for the invasion of Abyssinia should be outlined and the account of the invasion and its significance should be done in more detail. Subsequent developments can be in chronological outline till his involvement in World War II and his downfall.

8. The Second World War 1939 – 1945

(i) Factors leading to the War: aggressive policy of Germany and Japan; Anglo-French appeasement policies.

Should be discussed in some detail, showing how these aggressive policies made war more likely and worldwide in scope.

Appeasement: why Britain and France chose to follow this policy and how it brought war closer.

(ii) Course of the War: Europe, Africa and Far East. American entry and contribution.

Main theatres of the War should be done separately in chronological order; the main battles can be done in more detail; El Alamein, Stalingrad, Midway, the Normandy landings and the policy of “island hopping” in the Pacific. The US contribution should be done separately for Europe and the Pacific.

(iii) Reasons for the defeat of the Axis Powers.

Each of the reasons for the defeat of the Axis should be explained.

9. Tension and Co-operation after the Second World War

(i) Causes of the Cold War. End of wartime unity; Yalta and Potsdam Conference; rift widens – Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe (1945-1947).

The main points raised at the two post-War Conferences as well as the major points of differences should be explained. A general account of the Soviet expansion in East Europe until 1947 and the major causes of the Cold War should be done in this context.

(ii) The Cold War and rival Alliances: Truman Doctrine; Marshall Plan; communist coup in Czechoslovakia; Berlin Blockade; NATO; division of Germany; “thaw” in the Cold War- how partial was it? Warsaw Pact (1953-1959); the Vietnam War (1964-75); crisis in east-west relations; detente (1970s).

Each of the events referred to above should be done in some detail; the two phases of the Vietnam War, the French and the US involvement after the Tonkin Gulf incident. In the 1960-62 period, the U-2 affair and the Berlin Wall incident should be mentioned; the Cuban Missile crisis should be done in detail – the easing of tension can be done as a result of the crisis. Only the outline of the reasons for détente and how it worked should be done.

(iii) Regional economic co-operation since Second World War: EEC, ASEAN.

The reasons for European cooperation after the war; a brief outline of the events leading to the Treaty of Rome. The basic structure of the EEC (including later amendments); the expansion of the EEC in 1973 and in the 1980s. Only the membership and functions of ASEAN.

(iv) The UNO: General Assembly and Security Council; strengths and weaknesses, need for restructuring and extent of success.
Changed nature of the UN since the 60s; General Assembly – Uniting for Peace Resolution. Security Council – Peacekeeping role: the following crises should be studied -Korea, Congo. Critical estimate of UN – need to restructure, its major weaknesses and failures.

10. The Middle East

(i) Post War conflict in Palestine after World War I, till the formation of the state of Israel.

A brief background of Arab nationalism and Zionism in the late 19th century. Impact of World War I: the conflicting promises made to the Arabs, the Jews (Balfour Declaration) and the Sykes-Picot Agreement. All these need to be understood clearly. A general outline of events from 1919 to the Arab Revolt of the late 1930s (the increased immigration of Jews under the mandate and the resultant conflict). The impact of World War II and the intensification of the conflict against Britain’s decision to withdraw – the UNO’s plan. Creation of Israel and the War of Liberation (a chronological account should suffice here).

(ii) The Arab-Israeli Wars from 1948 to Camp David Accord.

The following conflicts should be studied – (1948-1949), the Suez Crisis (1956), the Six Day War (1967), the Yom Kippur War (1973), Sadat and the Camp David Accord (1979). For each of these events, the causes and results should be done in some detail. Events to be done very briefly.

(iii) The war in Lebanon.

A general account of the war.
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