Aims:

1. To enable candidates to acquire knowledge (including information of facts, terms, concepts, conventions, principles, generalisation, assumption, hypothesis) concerning Political Science.

2. To enable candidates to apply acquired knowledge and understanding of procedures and the practices of governance in unfamiliar situations.

3. To develop an understanding of meanings and implications of the aforesaid items.

4. To develop an interest in the problems related to the structure of governments and political life of the people of one’s country and those of the world.

5. To develop positive attitudes necessary for developing a broader outlook.

CLASS XI

There will be one paper of three hours duration of 100 marks divided into two parts.

Part I (30 marks) will consist of compulsory short answer questions, testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary/ fundamental aspects of the entire syllabus.

Part II (70 marks) will be divided into two sections A & B. Candidates will be required to answer three questions out of five from Section A and two questions out of three from Section B. Each question in this part shall carry 14 marks.

SECTION A
Political Theory

1. Fundamental Ideas

Meaning of Politics; is Politics a Science? Definition of Political Science; difference between Political Science and Politics; relation of Political Science with other Social Sciences (History, Economics, Ethics and Sociology). Difference between State and Government, State and Society, State and Association, Nation, Nationality and Nationalism.

Meaning of Politics; is Politics a Science? Definition of Political Science; difference between Political Science and Politics; relation of Political Science with other Social Sciences (History, Economics, Ethics and Sociology). Difference between State and Government, Nation, Nationality and Nationalism.

Definition of State and elements of the State: (a) People (b) Territory (c) Government (d) Sovereignty. State and Society: definition of Society; difference between the State and Society. Association: definition, difference between State and Association. Government: definition, difference between the Government and the State. Nation, nationality and nationalism: meaning and definitions of these terms, their inter-relationship and difference. Factors helpful in evolution of a nation: common race and kinship, community, religion, language. Geographical contiguity and common economic ties, common history and traditions. Theory of one Nation and one State. Difference between the State and Nation.

2. The Origin of the State

Divine Origin Theory; the Force Theory; the Genetic Theory; the Social Contract Theory (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau); the Patriarchal Theory; the Matriarchal Theory; the Evolutionary Theory. Development of the State.

Various theories of the origin of State: Divine theory, Force theory, the Genetic theory, the Social Contract theory, the Evolutionary theory. Development of State: the Divine theory. Brief history of this theory, divine rights of the kings – example from modern monarchical states like England, Bhutan, Nepal, etc. Critical view. The Force theory – critical evaluation. The Genetic theory: The Patriarchal and Matriarchal theory – critical evaluation. The Social Contract theory: The basic views of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau in a compact manner and the critical evaluation of the theory. Evolutionary Theory: factors for the growth of this – such as kinship, religion, economic factor, wars and conflicts and the need for political power, conclusion. Development of the modern State through – tribal state, the oriental empire, the early city states, etc.

3. Modern Theories of the State

Socialism; communism; syndicatism; guild socialism; fascism.

Definitions of all the “isms”; main exponents of all these theories, essentials of all “isms” value and criticism of these theories.

4. The Purpose of the State

Divergent views: the state is an end in itself; the greatest happiness of the greatest number; modern view.

Divergent views – the State is an end in itself. The greatest happiness of the greatest number. Modern view. Meaning of the purpose of the State – brief knowledge of the functions of the State. Views of individualists and socialists – regarding the main aim or the end of the State – modern practical view – the concept of the welfare State. Functions of the welfare State – references can be given about the social securities in the west and Directive Principles of State Policy in India.

5. Sovereignty

Meaning, kinds and characteristics. Is sovereignty absolute and indivisible? A historical analysis.

Meaning and kinds, characteristics. Is sovereignty absolute and indivisible? Meaning, definitions, characteristics such as – all comprehensive, universal, permanent, inalienable, exclusive, etc. Kinds: titular and real, legal and political; De-jure and De-facto sovereign, popular sovereignty. Brief study of Austin Theory and Pluralistic view of Sovereignty.

6. Law

Meaning and nature of law; sources of law; kinds of law.

Meaning, definition of nature of law – different theories of law – analytical, historical, philosophical, comparative and sociological schools of thoughts of law – brief study. Sources – customs, usages, religion, judicial decisions, scientific commentaries, equity, legislation. Kinds of law – municipal, national, constitutional and international law, statute law, ordinances.

7. Liberty

Meaning of liberty; kinds of liberty; civil liberty; political liberty; safeguards of liberty. Does law help or hinder liberty?

Definition – kinds of Liberty: natural, political, economic and national liberty. Relationship between Liberty and Law. Conditions of Liberty as fundamental rights. Separation of judiciary from executive, well-knit party system, economic justice for all, free press and media, vigilance by the people. Safeguards of Liberty; does law help or hinder liberty?

8. Equality

Meaning of equality; extent of equality in modern states; kinds of equality; equality and liberty.

Meaning of Equality; extent of Equality; kinds of Equality; equality and liberty; definition; extent to which every one must get equality to realize the best; absence of special privileges. Equality and Liberty – self-explanatory.

9. Citizenship

Meaning and types of citizenship.

Meaning and types of citizenship. Definition of a citizen. Difference between a citizen and alien. Definition of citizenship. Kinds of citizenship – natural and naturalized. Double citizenship with one loyalty towards the nation or country of birth.

10. Forms of Government

Monarchy; aristocracy; democracy.

Definitions of these governments. Kinds: Monarchy – constitutional or limited; absolute monarchy. Aristocracy – elected or hereditary. Democracy – direct and indirect. Merits and demerits of these governments. Conditions for successful working of democracy.

SECTION B
Modern Constitutions

11. India

(i) Evolution of the Indian Constitution; formation of the Constituent Assembly of India; the Constitution of 1950 – basic features; the Union Government; the State Government; Legislature, Executive, Judiciary (composition only); relationship between Centre and State (legislative, administrative, financial). Public Services; composition and powers of Union and State Public Service Commissions. Local Self Government.

Evolution of the Indian Constitution, formation of Constituent Assembly of India. The Constitution of 1950 – basic features. Relations between the Centre and the States. Composition of the Centre and the State governments – Legislature, Executive, Judiciary. Composition and powers of Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commission. Local self government. Formation of the Constituent Assembly of India under Cabinet Mission Plan in 1946. Implementation of the Constitution in 1950 – basic features. Composition of Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council. Qualifications and terms of the President, the Prime Minister, Governor and the Chief Minister – Council of Ministers both at Central and State levels. Relationship between the Centre and the States – legislative administrative and financial. Local self-government: Three tier system of Panchayati Raj. Rural and local bodies – their composition and functions. Defects in their working and possible solutions to solve their shortcomings.

(ii) Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles of State Policy.

Fundamental Rights: meaning, importance and purpose of fundamental rights; classification; special features; critical evaluation.

Fundamental Duties: classification of Fundamental Duties; assessment.

Directive Principles of State Policy: meaning and purpose; classification; importance and utility; criticism.

Difference between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy.

CLASS XII

There will be one paper of three hours duration of 100 marks divided into two parts.

Part I (30 marks) will consist of compulsory short answer questions, testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary/ fundamental aspects of the entire syllabus.

Part II (70 marks) will be divided into two sections A & B. Candidates will be required to answer two questions out of three from Section A and three questions out of five from Section B. Each question in this part shall carry 14 marks.

SECTION A

1. Classification of States

Early classification. A classification of modern states.

Early classification: Reference to the views of Plato, Pindar, Herodotus, Thucydides – the triple classification of States outlined by them as Monarchy, Aristocracy and Democracy. Improving upon the old classification by Aristotle. Aristotle’s classification of States – a critical evaluation of Aristotle’s classification.

Modern classification: classification suggested by J.A.R. Marriot, Burgess, Stephen Leacock.
Classification of governments under despotic and democratic heads and its further classification. C. F. Strong’s five main criteria of classification based on: the nature of the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.

2. Modern States

Totalitarian and Authoritarian States, Unitary and Federal States, Federation and Confederation. Pre-requisites of a Federation. Future of Federalism. Parliamentary and Presidential form of government. Features, merits and demerits of these governments.

Under classification of Modern States – totalitarian and authoritarian governments. Liberal democracy – features, merits and demerits. Unitary and federal. Federation and confederation. Essentials or pre-requisites of a federation, such as, written and rigid constitution. Supreme position of the constitution, division of power. Impartial supreme judiciary, double citizenship, bicameralism, etc. Essential conditions for the successful working of a federation such as – the desire for union and not for unity. Geographical contiguity, absence of inequality among the units. Political education of the people, alert political parties, etc. Future of federalism – growing tendencies towards unitary federalism due to factors like emergencies of war, terrorism, economic planning. Problems faced by federal governments. Modern communication and transport facilities, etc. References to India, U.SA. and U.K. Parliamentary and Presidential forms of government: Definitions, features, merits, demerits. Recent trends with reference to India, U.SA. and U.K.

3. Constitution

Meaning, kinds, written and unwritten. Rigid and flexible constitutions. Merits and demerits.

Meaning, written and unwritten, rigid and flexible, merits and demerits.

SECTION B

4. The Separation of Powers

The theory of separation of powers – its application to modern governments – is separation desirable and practicable?

The theory of separation of powers with special reference to Montesquieu’s views. Critical evaluation of the theory. The theory of Checks and Balances – meaning with reference to U.S.A., India and U.K. – relevance of the theory in modern times.

5. Franchise and Representation

Suffrage – who should be entitled to vote? Adult franchise; duties of a representative; modes of election; constituency; minority representation. Political parties; two party system; multiple party system; functional representation.

Franchise and representation: Who should be entitled to vote? Adult franchise – meaning, merits and demerits. Methods of election: direct, indirect. Constituencies: meaning, kinds – single member, multiple member constituency – merits and demerits. Minority representation – meaning, kinds. Duties of a representative. Cumulative vote system. Second ballot system. Political parties – meaning, definition, role or functions in a democratic set up. Kinds – bi-party, multi-party system – meaning, functions, merits and demerits. Reference to Indian, British and American political parties. Proportional representation – meaning. Single transferable vote system and list system. Functional representation – meaning, merits and demerits.

6. Organs of the Government

(i) The Legislature

Functions of legislature; structure of legislature. The legislature in India, U.S.A. and U.K. – a comparative study.

Meaning, functions and structure of the legislature, legislative procedure. The legislatures in U.K., India and U.S.A. Composition, powers and positions of the legislatures in these three countries – a comparative study.

Composition and powers of House of Commons and House of Lords, House of Representatives and the Senate, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Are parliaments the true representatives of the electorate in developing countries or merely talking shops? The decline of the position of the legislature in modern times. Merits and demerits of a Bi-cameral and unicameral legislature.

(ii) The Executive

Functions; types of executive. The Civil Services. Difference between the political executive and the permanent executive. Executive in India, U.S.A. and U.K. – a comparative study.

Meaning, types and functions of the executive. Meaning and role of Civil Services. Difference between the political and permanent executive. Recent growth of executive powers. Executive in India, U.K. and U.S.A. – a comparative study. The role of the Queen of England. The appointment of the Presidents of India and America – powers, functions and positions of executive heads of India, U.K. and U.S.A. Mode of election of the President of India and the U.S.A.

(iii) The Judiciary

Organisation of the Judiciary; importance of Judiciary. Functions of Judiciary. Conditions of independence of Judiciary. Relation of the Judiciary, the Legislature and the Executive. Judicial Review. Judiciary in India, U.K. and U.S.A. – a comparative study.

Meaning and importance of judiciary; functions of judiciary; conditions of independence of judiciary; relationship between the judiciary and legislature; relationship between the judiciary and executive. The rule of law and a brief reference to Administrative Courts. The Judicial Review – meaning, its application in the U.K., India and U.S.A. Judiciary in the U.K., India and U.S.A. – composition, powers and position. The apex courts in the U.K., India and U.S.A. Indian Supreme Court. American Supreme Court. House of Lords as the apex court in U.K.

7. Democracy in India – a perspective of the challenges faced.

(i) Social and Economic Inequality.

Social inequality: untouchability; problems faced by women; illiteracy; impact of social inequalities on the democratic system.

Economic inequality: poverty and unemployment; causes of poverty and unemployment; impact of economic inequality on the democratic system; measures to eradicate economic inequality.

(ii) Regional Imbalance.

Meaning and causes of regional imbalance; consequences of the regional disparities; different measures for removing regional imbalances.

(iii) Communalism, Casteism, Separatism, Political Violence.

Communalism: meaning and causes; impact of communalism on India’s democratic system; measures to combat communalism.

Casteism: basis of the caste system; evil effects of casteism; impact of casteism on India’s democratic system.

Separatism: meaning; different separatist movements in India; measures to stop separatist tendencies.

Political Violence: major forms or patterns of violence in India; politicisation of crime leading to political violence; major violent movements in India; measures to stop violence.
Click Here for ICSE Class XI and XII All Subjects Syllabus

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