1. To familiarise candidates with the basic concepts of Sociology and Anthropology.

2. To develop in candidates an understanding of various forces that constitute social life and social problems.

3. To create an awareness of the process of change and development in general and with reference to the Indian society in particular.

4. To provide candidates with the means whereby they can come to a better understanding of other cultures as well as of their own.

5. To form in candidates the habit of scrutinising social assumptions and beliefs in the light of scientific evidence.

6. To introduce a deeper study of the subject for the tertiary level.


There will be two papers in the subject.
Paper I – Theory: 3 hours ……70 marks
Paper II- Practical Work ……30 marks

PAPER – I (THEORY) – 70 Marks

Part 1 (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short answer questions testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary / fundamental aspects of the entire syllabus.

Part II (50 marks) will consist of seven questions out of which the candidate will be required to answer five questions, each carrying 10 marks.

1. Origin and Development of Sociology and Anthropology

(i) Emergence of Sociology as a discipline.

Discuss briefly the origins and growth of the discipline.

(ii) Classical thinkers and theories.

Discuss in brief the contribution of Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber.

(iii) Nature and Scope of Sociology; Meaning and Definition of Society.

General/broad definition of society.

Relation of Sociology with other Social Sciences – Political Science, Economics Anthropology, History, Psychology, Philosophy.

(iv) Research methodology.

Formulation of the problem, Observation, Classification, Hypothesis, Verification, Prediction.
(v) Nature and Scope of Anthropology.

Definition: Root words, general definition; growth of the discipline – travellers, explorers, administrators and missionaries; Branches of Anthropology: Physical Anthropology; Socio-cultural Anthropology – Ethnology, Archaeology, Linguistics; Applied Anthropology.

2. The Nature of Society – Concepts and Characteristics

(i) (a) Society and the individual: man as a social being.

Explain man as a social being, using the examples of the feral cases of Hauser, Amla and Kamala and Anna.

(b) Human being as a rational and social partner in environmental actions.

While human beings are responsible for the present state of the environment, they are also capable of acting intelligently and finding solutions. For a man to sustain himself, a balance between his social life/existence and his environment is necessary. The two cannot be isolated. (a general understanding of the above to be provided).

(ii) Types of Society (Rural and Urban Society).

Discuss the nature of Rural and Urban Society.

(iii) Social Groups.

Community and Association, Primary Groups (in-group), Secondary Groups (out-group) and Reference Groups.

(iv) Social Processes.

Co-operation and conflict, folkways and mores, crowd and crowd behaviour.

3. Race, Ethnicity and Culture

(i) Concept of race.
Definition, traits and racial types.

(ii) Notion and attributes of culture. Indian traditions, customs and culture – past and present.

Definition; material and non material culture; characteristics of culture.

A brief look at some past traditions and customs which reflect a close understanding of material and non material culture e.g. sacred groves, johads, eris [water tanks of South India], farmers crops and growing season in complete harmony with the local environment and seasons, etc.

(iii) Notion of Ethnicity.

Definition and features of ethnicity.

(iv) Relationship between race and culture.

Causes of prejudice: misinformation, ethnocentrism, economic advantages, political advantages, compensation for frustration. Remedies.

(v) Examples of ethnic separatism.

Examples of ethnic separatism, e.g. Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, or any other similar movement.

4. Natural and Social Selection – Heredity and Environment

(i) Natural selection and heredity.

Definition of natural selection and heredity; survival of the fittest, mechanisms of heredity – basic process and terms; genetic changes and acquired characteristics.

(ii) Social selection and Environment.

Definition of social selection and environment; types of environment (natural and social); struggle for existence.

(iii) Interplay of heredity and environment.

Self explanatory.

5. Social Stratification

(i) Social stratification: the elements.

Definition of stratification, inequality, difference.

(ii) The class system: its nature, development, types of classes.

Discuss briefly the growth and nature of the different classes (lower, middle, upper).

(iii) The caste system: concept, caste origin, caste and class comparison, its features; caste in modern India.

Definition. Vertical and horizontal division of society. Characteristics – social, ancient, universal, diverse forms; caste in modern India – reservation, caste and politics; social mobility– brahminisation, sanskritisation and westernization – definitions only.

6. Population and other Social Problems

(i) Over population, crime, juvenile delinquency, beggary, poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, child labour.

Inter relationships between the social problems.

(ii) Impact of urbanisation on the environment:

Stress on civic amenities; supply of water and electricity, waste disposal, transport, health services, pollution, problems of housing, migrating and floating population, natural resources and their depletion.

A close look at each of the above, with specific examples from the Indian context.

(iii) Alleviating the problems.

Discuss briefly the causes, consequences and solutions for the above social problems.


To do justice to the basic structural principles and theoretical orientation of the discipline, empirical and ethnographic substantiation is essential. In keeping with the significance of doing practical work and gaining a hands-on understanding of various social issues, candidates are expected to undertake two studies. Topics for the studies should be chosen from within the overall syllabus, as there is ample scope for diversity.

Candidates will be expected to have completed two studies from any chapter covered in Theory. Assessment for each study will be as detailed below:

Mark allocation per study [15 marks]:

Statement of the purpose 1 mark
Overall format 1 mark
Hypothesis 1 mark
Choice of technique 1 mark
Detailed procedure 4 marks
Limitation 1 mark
Conclusion 2 marks
Viva-voce based on the study 4 marks

List of suggested studies for Practical Work:

1. The problem of Child Labour in India.

2. Children and beggary.

3. Poverty and Crime.

4. The Population explosion and its impact on urban society.

5. The policy of reservation in India or The backward class movement.

6. The significance of the Mandal Commission.

7. The rising Middle Class in India.

8. The nature of protest in rural India (example Singur).

9. Race and examples of Racism (Apartheid/ American Racism).

10. The birth of new states in India based on ethnic separatism.

11. The changing nature of culture and tradition.

12. Cultural fusion and Gen-X.

13. The Urban family, the role of Voluntary Associations or The Urban Neighbourhood.

14. Rural society in India or The village in India (an example can be taken and elaborated upon), for e.g. Anna Hazare’s village Ralegan Siddhi).

15. Biographical sketch of one of the thinkers – Weber or Comte, etc.

16. Slums in the urban neighbourhood.

The topics that have been outlined for Practical Work are based on the syllabus.

The project topics are diverse and at the same time there are common themes running through some of them. As this is so, it is possible to club some topics in terms of the methodology that can be used to carry out the research as has been done below.

The nature of the topics that have been chosen can also be separated into two categories. Some topics are theory based and so the methodology will largely be second hand information gathering from already available material, while there are also ethnographic topics for which students can go and do first hand field studies.

Some topics combine theory (second hand data) with the empirical (first hand data). It may be interesting if teachers guide students towards doing one study of each kind. This way a student will have some knowledge of both the theoretical as well as ethnographic character of social facts.

Guidelines for completing some of the studies for Practical Work are listed below. This may be used as a reference for conducting studies on other listed topics.

1. The problem of Child Labour in India (S. No. 1 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

2. Children and Beggary (S. No. 2 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

The methodology and the analysis is the same for the above two topics.

Aim: To study the social position of children in India.

Data: The data available here is both secondary and empirical.

Methodology: Students should first identify the sample they are going to study. To do this, students must first seek out places where they can find children below the age of 15 years, engaged in doing work. These can be: their neighbourhoods, on way to school or near school, construction sites, roadside eateries, in homes, working in factories /repair shops, on street corner shops, children begging in the streets (or at religious places), at traffic lights, at railway stations, etc.

Technique: Students need to identify whom they are going to study and then gather their data

− by observing the daily routine of the child/children and recording this; and

− by creating a questionnaire to interview them for preparing a case history.

The student needs to ask questions about:

  • the age (remember many will lie about their age as they know it is illegal to work)
  • family background (members in the family /caste/class/ and religion)
  • level of education and whether they would like to go to school
  • whether they are migrants and why they have migrated
  • the economic position of the family and why they work/and who all in the family work
  • what they earn
  • how they spend their free time
  • what would they like to do if they did not have to work
  • how aware are they about the government law against child labour
  • students can classify the data gathered also in terms of the differences between girls and boys as this will give an idea of gender discrimination existing in the sample.

The data gathered can be supported with a photo essay of the child /children studied and their living conditions/work place, etc.

Interpretation: An analysis of the data gathered is important and does not have to be complicated.

Students should be asked to do a critical examination of the data they gather by contrasting what they find from their study with the government laws, which can be found on the Internet.

Students should be asked to look for information on industries where child labour is used.

For example:
− The firecracker industry in Sivakasi,
− Aligarh lock industry,
− Firozabad bangle workers,
− Carpet makers in Benaras,
− Mine workers in Manipur,
− Football makers in UP.

This information and the government legislations are easily available on the Internet.

This will help them understand and analyse the problem they have chosen to study.
They should:
(i) Examine why children are in these jobs/ positions;
(ii) Examine failure of the family and so the need for children to work;
(iii) Examine failure of the government to provide for such families;
(iv) Examine how these children fail to be educated and whether boys are more educated than girls;
(v) Examine the role of urban society in creating the need for such child labour (for example the employment of young girls to take care of children in many urban households);
(vi) Identify how there is gender discrimination in terms of the kind of work boys and girls do;
(vii) Examine if there is a pattern in the migration, i.e., whether they come from the same region, caste class and religion and how this can be related to the poor conditions of life where they are originally from.


− Problems faced in data gathering and analyses to be mentioned.
− In conclusion, compare the situation of these children to their own urban advantaged upbringing and do a critique of the local government as well as a critical self-analysis.

3. The Population Explosion and its Impact on Urban Society (S. No. 4 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

Aim: To examine the relationship between urban expansion and the collapse of the urban society.
This collapse is reflected not only in a breakdown of law and order but also in the breakdown of urban infrastructure; and it leads to the growth of slums.

Data: Students can study a particular aspect of the collapse of the infrastructure.
For example:
− they can do a case study of the broken down state of the roads,
− collapse of the transport system,
− the non availability of water in their neighbourhoods,
− the power cuts,
− the rise of prices
− growth of the neighbourhood slum

Technique: Students will have to gather first hand material from around their neighbourhoods:
− by observing how things have collapsed or changed and record these
− by interviewing residents in the area chosen and ask them their opinion of the changes and what should be done to improve the situation
− by talking to local administrators like a councillor about why things have collapsed

Students can also take two neighbouring areas which seem different and compare the two areas.

Interpretation: The data gathered needs to be analysed by examining how:

(i) Civic agencies have failed to provide basic amenities;

(ii) Examine how residents feel they can contribute to improving the conditions;

(iii) They can also study the impact of migration on the urban areas leading to the rise of slums because the population explosion is largely due to migration to the city;

(iv) Data will show why people migrate to the city;

(v) An interesting connection between the rural and urban areas can be drawn by looking at slums, and the nature of occupations found there.

4. The rising Middle Class in India (S. No. 7 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

Aim: To study the rise of the middle class and its changing lifestyle, consumption habits and mindset.

Data: Students will have to gather data by interviewing middle class family members in their neighbourhood. Students need to interview members of a family from different generations (grandparents /parents and grandchildren/children).

They need to create a questionnaire for this where the kind of questions asked should be:
− About family background (age /religion, etc.).
− Their history in the city (how long they have lived there /where they have come from/why they came, etc.).
− Their past and present occupation.
− Income levels.
− Patterns of expenditure.
− What are the gadgets they use
− The car they drive.
− How they use their leisure time.
− Their opinion on careers for their children.
− Where they go for holidays.
− What are their political leanings

Students should then ask how this is different from the earlier times so that they get a sense of the change in the lifestyle.

Sociological interpretation: A major focus of the questions asked would have to be on the changing consumption patterns of the household. This would enable students to analyse not only changes in the consumerism of the class but also understand how mobility is closely related to class.

Students should be asked to read about the changing role of the middle class through India’s history in the political arena.

5. The birth of New States in India based on Ethnic Separatism (S. No. 10 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

Aim: To study the relationship between nation, ethnicity and separatism with the help of examples and to discuss the importance of ethnicity in the formation of identity using the examples.

Data: Secondary sources of information such as news magazines and the internet can be used after a state has been identified for study.

Sociological Interpretation:

(i) It is important here to try and make students aware of the contemporary relevance of these issues

(ii) Students should take the example of a recently formed state in India, such as: Jharkhand, Chattisgarh or the demand for Telangana.

(iii) They should discuss how the state was formed.

(iv) They should also analyze the importance of ethnic identity in the demands for separate statehood.

(v) They should examine how this demand for a separate state can threaten the unity of India. For instance as is being seen in Assam, Kashmir and even Mumbai .

(vi) They can also examine the history of such separatism by looking at how and why states like Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh were formed.

Finally based on the example they chose, students should attempt to say something about how ethnicity can threaten the idea of a nation because it can be the basis of sub nationalism on one hand and separatism on the other.

6. Biographical Sketches of one of the Thinkers – Weber, Comte, etc. (S. No. 15 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

Aim: To present a simple overview of the thinkers and their primary contribution and see how students are able to apply practically what they have studied in class theoretically.

Data: Students must first choose a thinker they like.

Students will have to use secondary sources and what they have learnt in class to gather information. Other secondary source materials available in the library should be used, such as encyclopaedias. Information is also available on the internet.

Interpretation: From the available material the student should:
− Present a brief biographical history of the thinker
− Discuss major theoretical contributions of the thinker
− Take an example to discuss the empirical application of anyone of the theoretical ideas attributed to the thinker.

For example, a student could do a sketch of Durkheim and his study of religion and then take the example of tribal religion to explain the concept of totems and clans. Or Marx’s concept of the rise of communism can be discussed with the help of examples.


There will be two papers in the subject.
Paper I – Theory: 3 hours ……70 marks
Paper II– Practical Work ……30 marks

PAPER – I (THEORY) – 70 Marks

Part 1 (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short answer questions testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary / fundamental aspects of the entire syllabus.

Part II (50 marks) will consist of seven questions out of which the candidate will be required to answer five questions, each carrying 10 marks.

1. Social Institutions

Definition of Social Institutions. Types of social institutions: Kinship, Marriage, Family, Religion, Economic organizations, Law and Justice systems.

2. Kinship and Clan

(i) Types of kinship: consanguineous and affinal kinship. (ii) Degree of kinship, range of kinship descent. (iii) Kinship usages – avoidance, joking relationship, teknonymy, avunculate, amitate, couvades.(iv) Kinship terms – descriptive and classificatory. (v) Residence and descent. (vi) Clan: basic features, phratry, views about formation of phratry, moiety and dual organization, Morgan’s claim, Tylor’s analogy; clan organisation in Indian tribes.

Discuss the nature of types of kinship; degree of kinship (primary, secondary, tertiary), broad range and narrow range; discuss avoidance, joking relationship, teknonymy, avunculate, amitate, couvade; Also discuss descriptive and classificatory, residence and descent.

Clan: basic features, phratry, views about formation of phratry, Morgan’s claim, Tylor’s analogy; clan organisation in Indian tribes.

3. Marriage and Inheritance

(i) Definitions and functions of marriage.

Discuss the nature of marriage and its functions.

(ii) History of human marriage. Ways of acquiring mates: probationary, by capture, by trial, by purchase, by service, by exchange, by mutual consent and elopement, by intrusion, by inheritance of widows.

Examples of promiscuity, monogamy, polyandry and polygyny among certain tribes; views of Morgan.

Discuss the various ways of acquiring mates as specified above.

(iii) Forms of marriage: exogamy, endogamy, cross cousin, levirate, sororate, polygamy, and hypergamy.

Self explanatory.

4. The Family

(i) Origin of family.

Morgan’s evolutionary scheme.

(ii) Definition and features.

Definition and features by MacIver.

(iii) Functions of family.

Reasons for the universal existence of family: roots of family, family as an association (primary and extended family, consanguineous and conjugal family, family of origin and procreation, polygyny, polyandry, unilateral and bilateral, lineage, sib, gotra, patripotestal, matripotestal and avuncupotestal, matrilineal and patrilineal, matrilocal, patrilocal and avunculocal).

(iv) Forms of the family.

Matriarchal and patriarchal societies in India, Nuclear and joint families; small family norm.

(v) Changing nature of the family.

Structural changes, functional changes; Factors responsible for the changes.

5. Religion, Magic and Morality

(i) Definition and concepts; magic, religion and science; beliefs, rituals, superstitions, taboo.

A brief discussion on the above.

(ii) Functions and dysfunctions of religion.

A brief discussion on the above.

(iii) Theories of religions: animism, animatism, manaism, bongaism, naturism, totemism, fetishism, functional theories.

A brief discussion of above concepts.

(iv) World religions – Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, Confucianism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrianism.

A brief discussion of the basic principles of each religion.

(v) Religion, magic and science: Frazer’s types of magic, differences and similarities between religion and magic, between religion and science.

Discussion on Frazer’s types of magic (contagious and homeopathic); white and black magic. Differences and similarities between religion and magic, religion and science.

(vi) Morality: notion of morality, relation between religion and morality.

Definition of morality; moral code, religious code; relationship between religion and morality.

6. Economic Organisation

(i) Economic activity and its types: preliminary concepts, collective economy, simple transformative economy, early industrialism, modern industrialism.

Preliminary concepts – utility, wealth, economic and free goods, capital and consumer goods, price, costs, profit. The collecting economy.

The simple transformative economies: types, examples in India, exchange of economic goods.

Early Industrialism: characteristics, feudal, guild and domestic systems. Modern industrialism: characteristics, effects.

(ii) Industry and social change: impact of industry on society, class as an effect of industrialisation, the new class, industry and position of women, urbanisation and modernisation.

Class as an effect of industrialization – Characteristics of class: individualism, economic and professional values, rationalism, disregard for taboos and prohibitions, the new class – urbanism.

The factory system. More freedom.

Urbanization and Modernization – definition only.

(iii) Economic organisation in tribal India: definition and classification; nature of primitive economies; property in primitive economies.

Definition of economic organization. Growth of types of economic organizations through prehistoric times. Thurnwald’s classification. Classification given by Adam Smith, List, Hildebrand, Grosse, Darryl Forde, Gordon Childe, Herskovitz and Ehrenfels.

Nature of primitive economies: Exploitation of nature. Barter and money; The profit motive, collective endeavour, rate of innovation, regular market, manufacture of consumption goods, specialization based on age and sex, property.

Property in primitive economies: conception of property; individual and collective ownership of property – multiple possessory rights; rules of inheritance.

(iv) Economies of Indian tribes: food gathering, agriculture, shifting axe cultivation, handicrafts, pastoralism, industrial labour.

Economies of Indian tribes: Food gathering; agriculture; shifting axe cultivation – different names, the process, criticism of this type of cultivation, examples of tribes having this practice; handicrafts; pastoralism; industrial labour – migration of large numbers of Santhal, Kond and Gond to tea gardens in the north east; large resources of coal, iron and steel in Bengal, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh; examples of Santhal, Ho in pick-mining, coal-cutting, the mica and the iron & steel industry.

Important factors responsible for changes in tribal economy: education, religious factor, economic factor, technological inventions, standard of health, mode of production, modernculture, role of Media.

7. Women in Society

(i) Theoretical Background – determinants of status – the gap between theory and practice.

Definition of the term ‘Status’; the determinants of status (Malinowski and Lowie); examples of incompatibility between theoretical and actual status.

(ii) Matrilineal Societies.

The Khasi and the Garo

(A brief reference can be made to the Nairs – not for testing). Economic interpretation: hunters and gatherers, cultivators and nomads.

Inheritance (only for the purpose of discussion and not for testing).

(iii) Status of Women in Patrilineal Societies.

Residence: example of the Khasi; Kulinism – Taboos; examples from the Ho, the Gond, the Tharu, the Khasa, the Nagas and some central Indian tribes.

(iv) Changing status of Women.

Changing status of women in –

Pre British and British India (social reforms – abolition of Sati and child marriage, widow remarriage).

Modern India: A brief discussion on legislation on Abolition of dowry, anti-rape laws, inheritance bill.

(Discuss empowerment of Women to explain the legislations – not for testing).

8. Law and Justice

Nature of primitive law: origins of law, differences between primitive and modern law, intention, responsibility, evidence, punishment, wergild.

The above can be explained by using examples such as Kamar, Kharia, Rengma Naga and the Ho. (Examples are only for the purpose of discussion and not for testing).

Definition of law – Transformation of custom into law- origins of primitive law; nature of primitive law – difference between primitive and modern law: territory, public opinion, collective cognizance, ethical norms intention, collective responsibility, evidence punishment, improvement, murder for murder, gradation of punishment, wergild.

Why law is obeyed: public opinion and equation of law with ethical norms; Government – three functions of the government; types of government in primitive society; examples from India.

9. Social Change and Development

(i) Defining social change, globalization and development: role of individual and community.

The relationship between globalization, development and social change, special focus on sustainable development for improving quality of life for the present and future and understanding the challenges faced for sustainable development – social, political and economic considerations.

(ii) Role of Education. Meaning and functions, role of the teacher in the educational system.

Meaning and functions of education; role of teacher in the educational system.

Emphasize the role of education in creating social change.

(iii) Role of Mass Media (Print, electronic, audio-visual; positive and negative aspects of mass media).

Understanding each of the above forms of mass media and their role in creating social change.

(iv) Role of social movements – Narmada Bachao Andolan; Dalit Movement.

A brief history of a tribal movement and its consequences – the Narmada Bachao Andolan.

A brief history of a caste movement and its consequences – the Dalit Movement.

10. Tribal India – Past, Present and Future

(i) Definition of tribe, features and classification (geographical, linguistic, racial, cultural and economic).

Self explanatory.

(ii) Dormitories: dormitories in India – features and activities; origin of dormitories, culture, contacts, educative function.

Discuss the nature of the dormitory system and its functions in the context of tribal society.

(iii) Contact with the wider society (assimilation, and isolation, relationship between caste and tribe, tribal transformation).

Self explanatory.

(iv) Present conditions and problems.

Economic, political (regionalism and separatism), social and cultural, problems.

(v) Action by the Government.

Policies of the Government of India (post independence) for upliftment of the Indian tribes.


To do justice to the basic structural principles and theoretical orientation of the discipline, empirical and ethnographic substantiation is essential. In keeping with the significance of doing practical work and gaining a hands-on understanding of various social issues, candidates are expected to undertake two studies. Topics for the studies should be chosen from within the overall syllabus as there is ample scope for diversity.

Candidates will be expected to have completed two studies from any chapter covered in Theory. Assessment for each study will be as detailed below:

The practical work will be assessed by the teacher and a Visiting Examiner appointed locally and approved by the Council.

Mark allocation per study [15 marks]:

Statement of the purpose 1 mark
Overall format 1 mark
Hypothesis 1 mark
Choice of technique 1 mark
Detailed procedure 4 marks
Limitation 1 mark
Conclusion 2 marks
Viva-voce based on the study 4 marks

List of suggested studies for Practical Work:

1. Different types of kinship systems (patriarchal/matriarchal with examples as the base of discussion).

2. A History of Marriage in society.

3. Different marriage customs in India (comparisons can also be done).

4. Changing nature of the Indian family.

5. Religion and Society (focus can be on the biography of a world religion).

6. The problem of Communalism in India.

7. Traditional economies and the barter system.

8. Tribal Economies.

9. Consumerism and modernization.

10. The status of women in traditional society.

11. The changing status of women in India.

12. Women Leaders.

13. The role of Education in creating social change.

14. Media and modernization.

15. The internet as a substitute for family and school.

16. Globalisation and its impact on the individual and society.

17. Social Movements (focus on the biography of a movement that is based on the efforts of a caste/tribe/women/religious group / class or connect two aspects – for example, the Narmada Bachao Andolan is a tribal movement and has a woman as its leader in Medha Patkar).

18. Role of society in development and environment – (public awareness education programme, campaigns, public participation in decision-making, e.g.: Chipko Movement, Appiko in Karnataka, Eco-clubs, etc.)

19. Study a few noteworthy examples of sustainable development e.g.- Barefoot College in Tilonia, the work of NGOs like DDS in Andhra Pradesh in promoting self-sustenance in rural communities through developing seed banks, cultivation of millets and through promoting microfinance in the Grameen bank model.

The studies chosen are primarily theoretically oriented and based on concepts learnt in the class. Because these studies are theoretical, the methodology will be different and would be based on secondary data collection and its analysis and interpretation. Broad suggestions about how to approach similar studies are given below:

1. Changing nature of the Indian family (S. No. 4 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

Aim: To study the changing nature of the family in an urban setting.

Data: Students need to identify their sample and then gather their data by interviewing members from five families. Members of different generations from each family should be interviewed.

The student needs to collect data with the help of a questionnaire and interviews. The questions can be framed on the following:

− Description of the family structure (members, who does what in the family, the jobs outside, etc.)
− How they see themselves – joint or nuclear in terms of family relatives, who all live together, or share a kitchen or pool resources, etc.
− Seeking different family members opinion on whether they feel family life has changed. Nature of changes that have taken places and what have caused the changes.
− Has the status of the women in the family has changed in the recent past.
− Whether the women in the family work?
− Relationship between the different members of the family.

Interpretation: Once students have gathered this information they can analyse whether the family they have interviewed has changed over a period of time.
Students should examine:

− whether the respondents’ perception of the nature of the family matches with what the student has learnt in class.
− analyse what are the reasons for change in the nature of the family, if any.

For instance:
(i) whether migration has caused the family to change
(ii) occupational changes and shift in residence has caused changes
(iii) the education and working of the women of the family has created changes
(iv) failure of the generations to cope with each other has led to changes
(v) constraint of space has caused the changes

Conclusion: Students should also do a minor statistical analysis of :
− the types of families that they are able to identify into nuclear and joint
− make an approximation about what type of family is the trend in their sample .
− proceed to find out whether there are common factors in their sample that keep a family nuclear or joint.

2. Consumerism and Modernization (S. No. 9 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

3. Media and Modernization (S. No. 14 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

4. Globalisation and its impact on the Individual and the Society (S. No. 16 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

These three topics are interrelated and yet can be looked at independently.

(The same aim, methodology and interpretation will apply for the above studies).

Aim: To discuss how the processes of modernization and globalisation have had an impact on society, culture and the individual.

Data: Students need to interview members of a family from different generations (grandparents /parents and grandchildren/children) by identifying a sample of families in their neighbourhood who could belong to different economic backgrounds. Data should also be gathered from secondary sources such as the newspaper, internet and magazine articles.

Students need to begin by first discussing the concepts of modernization and globalisation as learnt in class. They should then proceed to gather information on consumerism, media and the changes in a society as a result of the process of globalisation.

Students need to ask these respondents:
− Nature of their life style
− Patterns of expenditure
− How they use their leisure time
− Students should then ask how this is different from the earlier times so that they get a sense of the change in the lifestyle
− How their daily life has changed with modernization
− What is the nature of the change
− Ask respondents what role the media has played in bringing about change and adaptation
− Ask about the role of the market in influencing consumption
− How their consumption patterns have changed
− How their thinking has changed and what are their political leanings
− Whether these are positive or negative changes

Sociological interpretation: Students need to do a simple analysis of the patterns of change and the reasons for the change.

They should also see if there is a common pattern in the classes of this change.

They should try and compare the changes between classes and understand if factors such as:
− education
− income
− family background
− religion etc , play a role in the changing life following modernization and globalisation.

5. Internet as a substitute for the Family and School (S. No. 15 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

This topic is self-evident and requires a critical analysis of the positive and negative impact of the internet. Given the amount of time the youth spend on the internet, it would be interesting to let the students engage in an auto- biographical critical analysis of the topic.
The analyses could be presented as a debate of ideas, supported by interviews with family members, parents, teachers and peers.

6. Social Movements (S. No. 17 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

Aim: This topic requires students to discuss what social movements are and the ideology behind them, supported by a case study of a social movement.

Data: The data would have to be gathered from secondary sources such as the Internet, magazines and newspaper archives.

Students should choose a particular movement from what they are taught. For instance, they can look at the Dalit Movements, tribal movements, environment movements, the Maoist insurgency, anti- price rise agitations ,Chipko/Narmada Bachao, etc. Having done so, they can choose to present a case study of a significant contemporary social movement either in the rural or the urban context.

Interpretation: Students need to present the:
− History
− Purpose &
− Achievements
They also need to present the community and individual significance of the movement.
Students should also be able to trace out the role of a pivotal figure in the movement. For instance the role of Ambedkar in the Dalit Movement or the role of women in the Chipko movement, Medha Patkar in the Narmada Movement

7. Changing status of women in India (S. No. 11 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

8. Women Leaders (S. No. 12 – List of suggested assignments for Practical Work)

Aim: These two topics are meant to understand whether the position of women has changed in society

Data: For both the topics, students would be required to take up specific areas where women participate. For instance, the role of women in the economy or women in education or women in the public arena can be looked at.

For topic 11 (Changing status of women in India): Students can interview women in these areas and ask questions such as:
− how their lives have changed socially and economically
− how their status has changed
− how education has changed their lives
− what they see as symbols of this change

Students should also have a summary of the Government’s legislations/bills on women, as this will help analyse how successful the Government’s efforts have been at emancipating women.

A comparison between the past and present can also be done by the students.

For topic 12 (Women Leaders): After following the above aim and data, students should take up the life of a woman leader from any time frame and present a biographical sketch supported by photographs.

They can also take up the life of two women from two different time periods and compare the changes that have taken place.

Case studies of women in different arenas, across cultures/religions can be presented.

NOTE: No question paper for Practical work will be set by the Council.
Click Here for ICSE Class XI and XII All Subjects Syllabus

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