A rectangular array of symbols (which could be real or complex numbers) along rows and columns is called a matrix.

Equal Matrices:

Two matrices are said to be equal if they have the same order and each element of one is equal to the corresponding element of the other.

Trace of a Matrix:

The sum of the elements of a square matrix A lying along the principal diagonal is called the trace of A i.e.  tr(A)

Thus if A = [aij]n´n

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