**Determinant**

Every square matrix A is associated with a number, called its determinant and it is denoted by det (A) or |A| .

Only square matrices have determinants. The matrices which are not square do not have determinants

(i) **First Order Determinant**

If A = [a], then det (A) = |A| = a

(ii) **Second Order Determinant**

|A| = a_{11}a_{22} – a_{21}a_{12}

(iii) **Third Order Determinant**

**Evaluation of Determinant of Square Matrix of Order 3 by Sarrus Rule**

The value of the determinant, thus will be the sum of the product of element. in line parallel to the diagonal minus the sum of the product of elements in line perpendicular to the line segment. Thus,

Δ = a_{11}a_{22}a_{33} + a_{12}a_{23}a_{31} + a_{13}a_{21}a_{32} – a_{13}a_{22}a_{31} – a_{11}a_{23}a_{32} – a_{12}a_{21}a_{33}.

Note This method doesn’t work for determinants of order greater than 3.

**Properties of Determinants**

(i) The value of the determinant remains unchanged, if rows are changed into columns and columns are changed into rows e.g.,

|A’| = |A|

(ii) If A = [a_{ij}]_{n x n} , n > 1 and B be the matrix obtained from A by interchanging two of its rows or columns, then

det (B) = – det (A)

(iii) If two rows (or columns) of a square matrix A are proportional, then |A| = O.

(iv) |B| = k |A| ,where B is the matrix obtained from A, by multiplying one row (or column) of A by k.

(v) |kA| = k^{n}|A|, where A is a matrix of order n x n.

(vi) If each element of a row (or column) of a determinant is the sum of two or more terms, then the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two or more determinants, e.g.,

(vii) If the same multiple of the elements of any row (or column) of a determinant are added to the corresponding elements of any other row (or column), then the value of the new determinant remains unchanged, e.g.,

(viii) If each element of a row (or column) of a determinant is zero, then its value is zero.

(ix) If any two rows (columns) of a determinant are identical, then its value is zero.

(x) If each element of row (column) of a determinant is expressed as a sum of two or more terms, then the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two or more determinants.

**Important Results on Determinants**

(i) |AB| = |A||B| , where A and B are square matrices of the same order.

(ii) |A^{n}| = |A|^{n}

(iii) If A, B and C are square matrices of the same order such that ith column (or row) of A is the sum of i th columns (or rows) of B and C and all other columns (or rows) of A, Band C are identical, then |A| =|B| + |C|

(iv) |I_{n}| = 1,where I_{n} is identity matrix of order n

(v) |O_{n}| = 0, where O_{n} is a zero matrix of order n

(vi) If Δ(x) be a 3rd order determinant having polynomials as its elements.

(a) If Δ(a) has 2 rows (or columns) proportional, then (x – a) is a factor of Δ(x).

(b) If Δ(a) has 3 rows (or columns) proportional, then (x – a)^{2} is a factor of Δ(x). ,

(vii) A square matrix A is non-singular, if |A| ≠ 0 and singular, if |A| =0.

(viii) Determinant of a skew-symmetric matrix of odd order is zero and of even order is a non-zero perfect square.

(ix) In general, |B + C| ≠ |B| + |C|

(x) Determinant of a diagonal matrix = Product of its diagonal elements

(xi) Determinant of a triangular matrix = Product of its diagonal elements

(xii) A square matrix of order n, is non-singular, if its rank r = n i.e., if |A| ≠ 0, then rank (A) = n

(xiv) If A is a non-singular matrix, then |A^{-1}| = 1 / |A| = |A|^{-1}

(xv) Determinant of a orthogonal matrix = 1 or – 1.

(xvi) Determinant of a hermitian matrix is purely real .

(xvii) If A and B are non-zero matrices and AB = 0, then it implies |A| = 0 and |B| = 0.

**Minors and Cofactors**

_{ij} of the element a_{ij} is the determinant obtained by deleting the i row and jth column.

The cofactor of the element a_{ij} is C_{ij} = (- 1)^{i + j} M_{ij}

**Adjoint of a Matrix –** Adjoint of a matrix is the transpose of the matrix of cofactors of the give matrix, i.e.,

**Properties of Minors and Cofactors**

(i) The sum of the products of elements of .any row (or column) of a determinant with the cofactors of the corresponding elements of any other row (or column) is zero, i.e., if

then a_{11}C_{31} + a_{12}C_{32} + a_{13}C_{33} = 0 ans so on.

(ii) The sum of the product of elements of any row (or column) of a determinant with the cofactors of the corresponding elements of the same row (or column) is Δ

**Differentiation of Determinant**

**Integration of Determinant**

If the elements of more than one column or rows are functions of x, then the integration can be done only after evaluation/expansion of the determinant.

**Solution of Linear equations by Determinant/Cramer’s Rule**

**Case 1**. The solution of the system of simultaneous linear equations

a_{1}x + b_{1}y = C_{1} …(i)

a_{2}x + b_{2}y = C_{2} …(ii)

is given by x = D_{1} / D, Y = D_{2} / D

(i) If D ≠ 0, then the given system of equations is consistent and has a unique solution given by x = D_{1} / D, y = D_{2} / D

(ii) If D = 0 and Dl = D2 = 0, then the system is consistent and has infinitely many solutions.

(iii) If D = 0 and one of Dl and D2 is non-zero, then the system is inconsistent.

**Case II**. Let the system of equations be

a_{1}x + b_{1}y + C_{1}z = d_{1}

a_{2}x + b_{2}y + C_{2}z = d_{2}

a_{3}x + b_{3}y + C_{3}z = d_{3}

Then, the solution of the system of equation is

x = D_{1} / D, Y = D_{2} / D, Z = D_{3} / D, it is called Cramer’s rule.

(i) If D ≠ 0, then the system of equations is consistent with unique solution.

(ii) If D = 0 and atleast one of the determinant D_{1}, D_{2}, D_{3} is non-zero, then the given system is inconsistent, i.e., having no solution.

(iii) If D = 0 and D_{1} = D_{2} = D_{3} = 0, then the system is consistent, with infinitely many solutions.

(iv) If D ≠ 0 and D_{1} = D_{2} = D_{3} = 0, then system has only trivial solution, (x = y = z = 0).

**Cayley-Hamilton Theorem**

Every matrix satisfies its characteristic equation, i.e., if A be a square matrix, then |A – xl| = 0 is the characteristics equation of A. The values of x are called eigenvalues of A.

i.e., if x^{3} – 4x^{2} – 5x – 7 = 0 is characteristic equation for A, then

A^{3} – 4A^{2} + 5A – 7I = 0

**Properties of Characteristic Equation**

(i) The sum of the eigenvalues of A is equal to its trace.

(ii) The product of the eigenvalues of A is equal to its determinant.

(iii) The eigenvalues of an orthogonal matrix are of unit modulus.

(iv) The feigen values of a unitary matrix are of unit modulus.

(v) A and A’ have same eigenvalues.

(vi) The eigenvalues of a skew-hermitian matrix are either purely imaginary or zero.

(vii) If x is an eigenvalue of A, then x is the eigenvalue of A^{*} .

(viii) The eigenvalues of a triangular matrix are its diagonal elements.

(ix) If x is the eigenvalue of A and |A| ≠ 0, then (1 / x) is the eigenvalue of A^{-1}.

(x) If x is the eigenvalue of A and |A| ≠ 0, then |A| / x is the eigenvalue of adj (A).

(xi) If x_{1}, x_{2},x_{3}, … ,x_{n} are eigenvalues of A, then the eigenvalues of A^{2} are x_{2}^{2}, x_{2}^{2},…, x_{n}^{2}.

**Cyclic Determinants**

**Applications of Determinant in Geometry**

Let three points in a plane be A(x_{1}, y_{1}), B(x_{2}, y_{2}) and C(x_{3}, y_{3}), then

= 1 / 2 [x_{1} (y_{2} – y_{3}) + x_{2} (y_{3} – y_{1}) + x_{3} (y_{1} – y_{2})]

**Maximum and Minimum Value of Determinants**

where a_{i}s ∈ [α_{1}, α_{2},…, α_{n}]

Then, |A|_{max} when diagonal elements are

{ min (α_{1}, α_{2},…, α_{n})}

and non-diagonal elements are

{ max (α_{1}, α_{2},…, α_{n})}

Also, |A|_{min} = – |A|_{max}

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