Electrical Properties:-

Electric charge on colloidal particles:- the stability of colloidal solution is due to the fact that the colloidal particles in the sol are electrically charged.

  • Colloidal particles either carries the +ve or –ve charge and the dispersion medium have an equal and opposite charge.
  • Ex. Ferric hydroxide particles are +vely charged. Where as dispersion medium is –vely charged.

Origin of electrical charge on colloidal particles:-

  1. Frictional electrification:- by mutual rubbing of colloidal particles with molecules of dispersion medium charge is developed.
  2. Preferential adsorption of ions from solution:- an ionic colloid adsorbs ions common to its own lattice during preparation of colloidal sol.
    Forex- if colloidal sol of Ag I is prepared adding AgNO3 solution to KI, Ag+ aquires positive and I aquires –ve charge.
  3. Dissociation of molecules followed by aggregation of ions:-in case of soap the RCOO groups get dissociated from Na+ ions and have the tendency to aggregate into a cluster carrying –ve charge.

Electro kinetic or Zeta Potential:- when one type of the ions of the electrolyte are adsorbed on the surface of colloidal particles it forms a “Fixed layer”. It attracts the opposite ions to form another layer called “diffused layer”.

The double layer of opposite charge thus formed is called Helmholtz  electrical double layer.

As a result, a difference of potential exists between the fixed layer and the diffused layer. This potential difference is known as electro kinetic or zeta potential.

Electrophoresis or cataphoresis:- The movement of the colloidal particles under the influence of an electric field is called the Electrophoresis or the cataphoresis

Electro-osmosis:- it may be defined as a phenomenon in which the molecules of the dispersion medium are allowed to move under influence of an electric field where as colloidal particles are not allowed to move.

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