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Methods of Preparation:

(i) From alkyl halides:

Alkyl halides react with silver nitrite in ethanolic solution to give nitro compounds. Alkyl nitrite is formed in minor quantity. This reaction is used to prepare 1 deg nitro compounds primarily while 2 deg and 3 deg halides give major proportion of alkenes due to β – elimination. Contrary to this alkali nitrites give alkyl nitrites as major product. This is due to ionic nature of alkali nitrite. But if the reaction is carried out in solvents like DMF or DMSO, then even NaNO2 or KNO2 give good yield (about 60%) of nitro compound.


(ii) Nitration:

Nitro derivatives of aromatic compounds like nitrobenzene are produced when benzene is allowed to react with nitrating mixture. (conc. HNO3 / conc. H2SO4).

Mechanism:


(iii) From amines:

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