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1. Anionic Detergents:-

They are anionic because a large part of their molecules are anions and it is the anionic part of molecule which is involved in cleanising action
Example:
Sodium alkylbenezene sulphonates:-
These detergents are salts of long chain alkylbenzene sulphonic acid.

The detergents having high biodegradability are soft detergents and with poor biodegradability are hard detergents.

2. Cationic Detergents:-

  • These detergents are so named because a major part of their molecules are cations and cationic part is involved in the cleanising action. They are also called as invert soaps.
  • They are quaternary ammonium salts containing one or more long chain alkyl groups.
  • They possess the germicidal properties and hence are used as germicides.

Example:-
Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide

3. Non – ionic detergents:-
These detergents do not contain any ions. They are actually esters of high molecular mass alcohols obtained by reaction between polyethylene glycol and stearic acid.

ADVANTAGE OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS OVER SOAPS:-
1. Synthetic detergents may be used in hard water without any wastage while some soaps gets wasted in water.
2. Synthetic detergents can be used in acidic medium while soaps get precipitated in acidic medium.

DISADVANTAGE OF DETERGENTS:-

1. They causes pollution in river and other water ways.
2. They are (some of them) are non biodegradable and causes pollution in the environment.

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