1. Define the term chemotherapy?
Ans. The branch of chemistry which deals with the treatment of diseases using chemicals is called chemotherapy.

2. While antacid and atitiallergic drugs interfere with function of histamine. Why they do not interfere with each other’s function.
Ans. Drugs desired to cure some ailment in one organ in the body affect. They other because they works on differen receptors secretion of histamine causes allergy. Since antiallergic and antacids work on different receptors, they not interfere each other.

3. Name a substance which can be used as an antiseptic as well as disinfectant?
Ans. 0.2% solution of phenol acts as antiseptic while its 1% solution is acts as disinfectant.

4. Name the sweetening agent used for a diabetic patient?
Ans. Any artificial sweetner like saccharin aspartame, or alitame may be added to sweets.

5. How are synthetic detergents better than soaps?
Ans. They can be used in hard water as well as in acidic solution the reason being sulphonic and their calcium and magnesium salts are soluble in water but the fatty acids and their calcium and magnesium salts are insoluble.

6. Why do soaps not works in the hard water?
Ans. Hard water contains calcium and magnesium salts. Therefore in hard water, soaps get precipitated as calcium and magnesium soaps which being insoluble stick to the clothes as gummy mass.

7. Aspirin is pain relieving antipyretic drug but can be used to prevent heartattack. Explain?
Ans. Aspirin prevents platelet coagulation and thus has antiblood clotting and therefore it is widely used to prevent heartattacks.

8. Why it is safer to use soap from the environmental point view?
Ans. Soaps are biodegrable while detergents containing branched hydrocarbon chains are quite stable, they are not degraded by microorganisms and hence causes water pollution in the rivers and other water ways.

9. What are antagonistic drugs?
Ans. Drugs that binds to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function are called the antagonistic drugs.
For Example:-
Cimetidine is called the antagonistic drug since it binds to reception site in stomach

10. Pickles have a long shelf life and do not spoiled for months why?
Ans. Plenty of salts and cod liver oil act as preservative. These do not allow moisture and air to enter the material and hence bacteria cannot drive on them. Thus they do not spoiled for months.


11. What is the function performed by histamine in the body?
Ans. Histamine is a patent Vasodilator.
i. It contracts muscles in the bronchi and gut.
ii. It relanes some other muscles in walls of blood vassels.
iii. Its timulates the release of pepsin and HCl in the stomach.
iv. It is responsible for coagulation in the nose associated with common cold and allergies.

12. Why are certain drug called enzyme inhibitors? Explain
Ans. Enzymes have active sites which bind the substrate quickly and effectively. The functional group present at the active site of enzyme reacts with functional group of substrate through ionic, or hydrogen bonding. Some drugs interfere with this interaction by blocking the binding site. Thus catalytic activity of enzyme is get inhibited. Thus the drugs are called inhibitors.

13. What are the difference between bathing soap and washing soap?
Bathing Soap
1. Bathing soap are potassium salts of long chain fatty acids.
2. They are usually soft and are free from the unused alkali
Lifeboy, Lux

Washing Soap
1. Washing Soaps are sodium salts of long chain fatty acids.
2. They are usually hard and also contain some residual alkali.
Nirol Soap, Nirma Soap

14. Write the chemical equation for preparing sodium soap from glyceryl oleate and glyceryl polimate.


15. What are biodegradabed and non-biodegradable polymer. Give example of each?
Ans. Detergents having streigh hydrocarbon chains are easily degraded by microorganism and hence are called the biodegradable detergents.
Sodium lauryl sulphate sodium 4 – (1 – dodecyl) benzene sulphonate.
Non biodegradable detergents:-
The detergents containing branched hydrocarbon chains are not easily degraded by microorganism and hence are called biodegradable polymers
Sodium 4 – (1, 3, 5, 7 – tetramethyloctyl) benzene sulphonate.

16. Explain the term, target molecules, or drugs forget as used in medicinal chemistry?

  • Knowledge of physcological action of drug target in the body helps us to choose a compound which can interact with target and hence is expected to therapeutatiacally active.
  • Drugs interacts with the proteins, carbohydrates nucleic acids and hence they are called as the drug target molecules. Proteins which acts as biological catalysts are called enzymes. Which are involved in communication are called receptors.

17. With the help of example explain how do teranquilizers controls the feeling of depression.

  • Noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter which plays an important role in mood changes if somebody have low level of noradenaline in the body then the signal sending activity becomes slow and the persons suffers from depression.
  • In order to remove depression and to boost the mood tranquilizers are used. These drugs inhibit the enzyme which catalyses the degradation of noradrenalin. Thus it activate the receptor for longer periods.

i. Give important use of following
a. Equanil
b. Morphine
a. Equnil is a tranquilizer and it is used for removing depression and hypertension.
b. Morphine is an alkaloid and it is used as an analgesic.
ii. What is an antipyretic give example?
Ans. Chemicals which are used to bring down the body temperature during high fever are called the antipyretics.
Examples are paracelamol and aspirin

19. What are fillers and what role these fillers play in soap
Ans. Substances which are added to soaps to change their properties in order to make them more useful for a particular application are called the fillers
i. Sodium rosinate, Sodium silicate, Sodium Carbonate are added to laundry soaps to increase their leather forming ability.
ii. Glycerol is added to shaving soaps to prevent them from rapid drying.

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