Physical state

Most of aldehydes (except formaldehyde which is a gas) are liquids at room temperature.The lower ketones are colourless liquids and have pleasant smell.

(ii) Boiling points

Aldehydes & ketones have relatively high boiling points as compared to hydrocarbons of comparable molecular masses due to polar carbonyl group, which bring stronger intermolecular dipole – dipole interactions between the opposite ends of C = O dipoles.

Ketones are relatively more polar than their corresponding isomeric aldehydes due to the presence of two electron repelling alkyl group around the carbonyl carbon.

(iii) Solubility

The lower members of aldehydes & ketones (upto four carbon atoms) are soluble in water. It is due to their capability of forming hydrogen bonds with water molecules. The solubility of these compounds in water decreases with the increase in the size of alkyl group because of the increase in magnitude of non polar part in the molecule.

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Class 12 Chemistry Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids All Topic Notes Class 12 Chemistry All Chapters Notes

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