Prob 5. Two organic compounds A and B have vapour densities 15 and 30 respectively. (A) reduces Fehling solution, but does not react with Na2CO3. (B) does not reduce Fehling solution but gives effervescences with Na2CO3. B when treated with a concentrated solution of base followed by prolonged heating gives a compound C(C3H6O). Identify A, B and C.


Prob 6.An organic acid A, C3H4O3 is catalytically reduced in presence of ammonia to give B, C3H7NO2. B reacts with acetyl chloride, hydrochloric acid and alcohols. It can also react with nitrous acid to give another compound C, C3H6O3, along with the evolution of nitrogen. What are A, B and C. Give reasons?

Sol.      Compound A is acid having one –COOH group only, the remaining part C2H3O can be

on catalytic reduction keto group is converted into secondary alcohol which with ammonia will give amino acid, i.e.,

with nitrous acid, B, react to give

Prob 7.    Compound A (C6H12O2) on reduction yields two compounds B and C. The compound B on oxidation gave D, which on treatment with aqueous alkali and subsequent heating furnished E. The latter on catalytic hydrogenation gave C. The compound D was oxidised further to give F which was found to be a monobasic acid (mw = 60). Deduce the structures of A to E. 


From the molecular weight data F comes out to be CH3COOH. If we work back B is CH3CH2­OH and D is CH3CHO.

From here we can deduce that reduction of A with LiAlH4 gives two alcohols. So A must be an ester. Hence (A) comes out to be CH3CH2CH2COOC2H5.

 Prob 8.    An organic compound (A) on treatment with acetic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid produces an ester (B). (A) on mild oxidation gives (C). (C) with concentrated KOH followed by acidification with dil. HCl regenerates (A) and produces (D). (D) with phosphorous pentachloride followed by reaction with ammonia gives (E). (E) on dehydration produces hydrocyanic acid. Identify compounds A, B, C, D and E.


(A) reacting with acetic acid is giving an ester (B). So (A) must be an alcohol. (A) alcohol on mild oxidation gives  (C). Hence (C) is an aldehyde. (C) with conc. KOH

followed by acidification is yielding (A) alcohol and  (D). So this reaction is cannizzaro reaction. So A must be CH3OH.

Prob 9.    An aromatic compound A on treatment with CHCl3 and KOH gives B & C, both of which, in turn give the same compound D when distilled with Zn dust.Oxidation of D yields E of formula C7H6O2. The sodium salt of E on heating with soda lime gives F which can also be obtained by distilling A with Zn dust. Identify A, B, C, D, E and F.

 Sol.         Molecular formula of (E) is C7H6O2 and reaction of its sodium salt with soda lime (decarboxylation) to form (F) indicates that (E) and (F) should be C6H5COOH and C6H6 respectively. Since (F) is also obtained from (A) by reaction with Zn dust, it indicates that (A) should be phenol. Nature of (A) as phenol is confirmed by the fact that it explains all the given reactions.


Prob 10.           Five isomeric para – disubstituted aromatic compounds A to E with molecular formula C8H8O2 were given for identification. Based on the following observations, give structures of the compounds?

i)  both A and B form a silver mirror with Tollen’s reagents; B gives a positive test with FeCl3 solution also.

 (ii)  C gives positive iodoform test.

 (iii)  D is readily extracted in NaHCO3 solution.

(iv)  E on acid hydrolysis gives 1, 4 dihydroxy benzene. 


(A) and (B) gives tollen’s test. Hence must contain aldehyde group. But (B) shows phenolic test also. Hence (A) & (B) are

(C) shows Iodoform test show it must contain  group. Therefore (C) is

(D) shows presence of carboxylic group. Hence (D) and (E) are

Prob 11.  An organic compound A, C8H4O3 in dry benzene in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 gives compound B. The compound B on treatment with PCl5, followed by reaction with H2/Pd (BaSO4) gives compound C, which on reaction with hydrazine gives cyclised compound D (C14H10N2). Identify A, B, C and D.


Sol.  Nature of reagents in the conversion of A to B indicates that the reaction must be  Friedal – crafts reaction.

Prob 12.  An organic compound A, C6H10O on reaction with CH3MgBr followed by acid treatment gives compound B. The compound B on ozonolysis gives compound C, which in presence of a base gives 1- acetyl cyclopentene. The compound B on reaction with HBr gives compound D. Write the structures of A, B, C and D.


Sol.  As B undergoes ozonolysis to form C, if must have a double bond. C in the presence of base gives a, b unsaturated ketone, so it is aldol condensation.


Prob 13.  A phenolic compound (A), C7H6O2 on mild oxidation gives a highly volatile oil (B).
A forms (C) on reaction with dimethyl sulphate in alkali. Oxidation of (C) with hot KMnO4 gives (D), the silver salt of which reacts with bromine water followed by heating gives (E) containing about 72% bromine. Give structures A to E. 


But it must be ortho because on oxidation, it gives a highly volatile oil indicating that there is intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

Prob 14.  An aromatic compound (A) gave a mixture of two isomeric products B and C on reaction with NH2OH. C rearranged to D (C8H9NO) on heating with H2SO4. D on hydrolysis produced E and F. A was oxidised with per benzoic acid to G. Hydrolysis of G gave H and E. An anhydride of E and its sodium salt on condensation with PHCHO produced cinnamic acid. H on reaction with phthalic anhydride in H2SO4 gave phenolphthalein. Suggest structures for A to H.


Formation of cinnamic acid proves that the anhydride is acetic anhydride. Hence E is acetic acid.

« Click Here for Previous Topic Click Here for Next Topic »

Class 12 Chemistry Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids All Topic Notes Class 12 Chemistry All Chapters Notes