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There are four carboxylic acid derivatives. These are generally represented as, where Z is halogen (usually Cl), OCOR’, OR’ or NH2 (or NHR’ or NR2‘).

(a) When Z is halogen (usually Cl), the derivatives are called as acid chlorides.

(b) When Z is -OR’, the derivatives are called as esters.

(c) When Z is, the derivatives are called carboxylic anhydrides.

(d) Where Z is – NH2, the derivatives are called amides. When Z is -NHR’ or -NR2‘ they are called N – substituted amides.

Synthesis of acid derivatives

Carboxylic acid derivatives are exclusively prepared from carboxylic acids. The preparation methods of carboxylic acid derivatives are already discussed under the chemical reactions of carboxylic acids.

Illustration 1.                                           (a)



Illustration 2.    Suggest a likely mechanism for each of the following reactions.



Solution: (a)


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