Get here NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3. These NCERT Solutions for Class 10 of Social Science subject includes detailed answers of all the questions in Chapter 3 – Nationalism in India provided in NCERT Book which is prescribed for class 10 in schools.

Resource: National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Book for Class X
Class: 10th Class
Subject: Social Science
Chapter: Chapter 3 – Nationalism in India


NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3 – Nationalism in India

Class 10 Social Science Book Chapter 3 Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions is given below.

Question 1:
Explain:
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhi ji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer 1:
(a) Colonisation affected people’s freedom, and nationalist sentiments surged during the
process of struggle against imperial domination. The sense of oppression and exploitation
became a common bond for people from different walks of life, and this resulted in the growth
of nationalist ideals. Thus, growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to anti-colonial
movements.

(b) During the First World War, the British army conducted forced recruitment from rural areas
in India. To finance the defence expenditure, high custom duties and income taxes were
imposed. Also, during 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, thereby
resulting in acute food shortages. All this caused extensive anger and opposition against the
British colonial rule, and the national movement of India headed towards a stronger, more
definitive direction.

(c) The Rowlatt Act was passed hurriedly through the Imperial Legislative Council despite
opposition from Indian members. It gave the government autocratic powers to repress political
activities besides allowing it to detain political prisoners without a trial, for two years. The
Indian were outraged by this act as it was clearly undemocratic and oppressive, and hurt
national sentiments and dignity.

(d) Gandhi ji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to various incidents of
violence perpetrated by the masses, especially the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 where the
people clashed with the police, setting a police-station on fire. Gandhi ji felt that the people
were not yet ready for a mass struggle, and that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained for
non-violent demonstrations.

Question 2:
What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
Answer 2:
The idea of satyagraha implies a unique method of mass agitation that emphasises the power
of truth, and the need to search for truth. It upholds the belief that if the cause is true and the
fight is against injustice, then there is no need for physical force or coercion against the
oppressor. Satyagraha is synonymous with non-violent agitation, where an appeal is made to

the oppressor’s conscience to search for justice. Gandhi ji believed that this dharma of non-
violence could be the cause of national unity and harmony.

Question 3:
Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission
Answer 3:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre—facts—on 13 April,1919, General Dyer blocked the exit
points from the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh where a large crowd had gathered—some
to protest against the British government’s repressive measures, others to attend the annual
Baisakhi fair. Dyer’s objective was to “produce a moral effect” and terrorise satyagrahis.
Hundreds of innocent people including women and children were killed on this day in the
indiscriminate firing by British soldiers. This led to large scale strikes, clashes with police and
attacks on government buildings by the enraged Indian people.

(b) The Simon Commission—facts—it arrived in India in 1928 and faced protest slogans of
“Go Back Simon”. It was because this body was to suggest constitutional changes in Indian
governance, but it did not have any Indian members. The Congress and the Muslim League
jointly demonstrated against it. Lord Irwin announced a vague “dominion status” for India to
quell the movement, leading to a Round Table Conference in October, 1929.

Question 4:
Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Answer 4:
The image of Bharat Mata as painted by Abanindranath Tagore shows her as bestowing
learning, food and clothing. She bears aesthetic quality as denoted by the mala held by her.
This is similar to the image of Germania as painted by Philip Veit, where she holds a sword,
but looks more feminine. The other painting of Bharat Mata is more manly in its representation.
In it, she is shown as bearing power and authority as denoted by the lion and elephant beside
her. The latter image is more akin to the image of Germania by Lorenz Clasen, where she
wields a sword and shield, and looks ready to fight.

DISCUSS

Question 1:
List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then
choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the
movement.
Answer 1:
The different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were the urban
middle class comprising lawyers, teachers and headmasters, students, peasants, tribals and
workers. Peasants, tribals and workers joined the movement from the countryside. They did so
with hopes of self-emancipation. Peasants rebelled against talukdars and landlords who
demanded high rents and also forced them to do begar or free labour. Tribal peasants revolted
against the enclosure of large forest tracts by the British government, which left them devoid
of a livelihood as well as traditional rights. Plantation workers, on the other hand, desired
freedom to move about and retain links with the villages they came from. All three believed
that Gandhi Raj would come with the Non-Cooperation Movement, and this would mark an
end to their sorrows. Hence, they joined the anti-colonial struggle.

Question 2:
Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against
colonialism.
Answer 2:
The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because it was done
in revolt against a commodity—salt, used by the rich and the poor alike. The tax on salt, and
the government monopoly over its production was a severely oppressive administrative move.
The Salt March was effective also because Gandhi ji met a large number of commoners during
the march and he taught them the true meaning of swaraj and non-violence. By peacefully
defying a law and making salt against government orders, Gandhi ji set forth an example to the
whole nation of how the oppressor could be confronted in a non-violent manner. This also led
to the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

Question 3:
Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the
experience meant to your life.
Answer 3:
A woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement—facts—salt manufactured;
foreign cloth boycotted; liquor shops picketed; peaceful satyagrahis attacked, including women
and children; brutal repression, many women went to jail as well; mostly from high castes and
rich families; saw national service as a sacred duty

Question 4:
Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Answer 4:
Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because of
differences in opinion. While those supporting the cause of minorities and the dalits believed
that only political empowerment would resolve their social backwardness, others like Gandhi
ji thought that separate electorates would further slow down the process of their integration
into society. Also, it was feared that the system of separate electorates would gradually divide
the country into numerous fragments because every community or class would then ask for
separate representations.

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