Get here NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5. These NCERT Solutions for Class 10 of Social Science subject includes detailed answers of all the questions in Chapter 5 – The Age of Industrialization provided in NCERT Book which is prescribed for class 10 in schools.
Resource: National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Book for Class X
Class: 10th Class
Subject: Social Science
Chapter: Chapter 5 – The Age of Industrialization
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 -The Age of Industrialization
Explain the following:
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and
artisans within the villages.
(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny because it speeded up the spinning
process, and consequently, reduced labour demand. This caused a valid fear of unemployment
among women working in the woollen industry. Till date, they had survived on hand spinning,
but this was placed in peril by the new machine.
(b) In the seventeenth century, merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and
artisans within the villages because production in urban areas could not be increased due to the
presence of powerful trade guilds. These maintained control over production, regulated prices
and competition, and restricted the entry of new people in the trade. Monopolisation was also
a common tactic. In the countryside, there were no such rules, and impoverished peasants
welcomed these merchants.
(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century on account of the growing
power of European companies in trade with India. They secured many concessions from local
courts as well as the monopoly rights to trade. This led to a decline of the old ports of Surat
and Hoogly from where local merchants had operated. Exports slowed and local banks here
(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India to establish a
more direct control over the weavers, free of the existing traders and brokers in the cloth trade.
The gomasthas were the paid servants who supervised the weavers, collected supplies and
examined the quality of cloth. The gomasthas ensured that all management and control of the
cloth industry came under the British. This helped in eliminating competition, controlling costs
and ensuring regular supplies of cotton and silk products.
Write True or False against each statement:
(a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was
employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
(b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
(c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
(d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity
Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.
Proto-industrialisation is the phase of industrialisation that was not based on the factory system.
Before the coming of factories, there was large-scale industrial production for an international
market. This part of industrial history is known as proto-industrialisation.
Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Some industrialists in nineteenth-century England preferred hand labour over machines
because there was no labour shortage in the market, and as a result, there was no problem of
high wage costs either. Industrialists did not wish to replace hand labour with machines that
would require large capital investment. Also, in industries where the production and amount of
labour required were dependent on the seasons, hand labour was preferred for its lower costs.
Apart from this, many goods could only be manufactured by hand. Machines could provide
mass quantities of a uniform product. But the demand was for intricate designs and shapes; this
required human skill, and not mechanical technology. Handmade products also stood for
refinement and class status. It was commonly believed that machine-made goods were for
export to the colonies.
How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from
After establishing political power, the East India Company successfully procured regular
supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers via a series of actions. These actions
were aimed at eliminating competition from other colonial powers, controlling costs and
ensuring regular supplies of cotton and silk goods for Britain.
Firstly, it appointed gomasthas or paid servants to supervise weavers, collect supplies and
examine textile quality.
Secondly, it disallowed Company weavers from dealing with other buyers. This was
ascertained by a system of giving advances to the weavers for procuring raw materials. Those
who took these loans could not sell their cloth to anyone but the gomasthas.
Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the
history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Britain and the History of Cotton
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants would trade with rural people in
textile production. A clothier would buy wool from a wool stapler, carry it to the spinners, and
then, take the yarn to the weavers, fuller and dyers for further levels of production. London
was the finishing centre for these goods. This phase in British manufacturing history is known
as proto-industrialisation. In this phase, factories were not an essential part of industry. What
was present instead was a network of commercial exchanges.
The first symbol of the new era of factories was cotton. Its production increased rapidly in the
late nineteenth century. Imports of raw cotton sky-rocketed from 2.5 million pounds in 1760
to 22 million pounds in 1787. This happened because of the invention of the cotton mill and
new machines, and better management under one roof. Till 1840, cotton was the leading sector
in the first stage of industrialisation.
Most inventions in the textile production sector were met with disregard and hatred by the
workers because machines implied less hand labour and lower employment needs. The
Spinning Jenny was one such invention. Women in the woollen industry opposed and sought
to destroy it because it was taking over their place in the labour market.
Before such technological advancements, Britain imported silk and cotton goods from India in
vast numbers. Fine textiles from India were in high demand in England. When the East India
Company attained political power, they exploited the weavers and textile industry in India to
its full potential, often by force, for the benefit of Britain. Later, Manchester became the hub
of cotton production. Subsequently, India was turned into the major buyer of British cotton
During the First World War, British factories were too busy providing for war needs. Hence,
demand for Indian textiles rose once again. The history of cotton in Britain is replete with such
fluctuations of demand and supply.
Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
Industrial production in India increased during the First World War because British mills
became busy with tending to war needs. Manchester imports decreased, and Indian mills
suddenly had a huge home market to supply. Later, they were also asked to supply war needs
such as jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents, leather boots, saddles and other items. There
was so much demand that new factories had to be set up even when old ones ran on multiple
shifts. Industrial production boomed with the employment of new workers and longer working
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science All Chapters
- Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
- Chapter 2: The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
- Chapter 3: Nationalism in India
- Chapter 4: The Making of a Global World
- Chapter 5: The Age of Industrialization
- Chapter 6: Work, Life and Leisure
- Chapter 7: Print Culture and the Modern World
- Chapter 8: Novels, Society and History
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 All Subjects