Get here Class 10 Social Science NCERT Textbook Answers to Chapter 6. NCERT Solutions Class X Chapter 6 includes answers to all the questions of Work, Life and Leisure provided in NCERT Text Book which is prescribed for class 10 in schools.
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Book for Class X
Subject: Social Science
Chapter: Chapter 6 – Work, Life and Leisure
NCERT Solutions for Class 10th Social Science:Chapter 6 – Work, Life and Leisure
Class X NCERT Social Science Text Book Chapter 6 – Work, Life and Leisure is given below.
Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth
The city of London was a magnet for the migrant populations due to the job opportunities
provided by its dockyards and industries. By 1750, one out of every nine people of England
and Wales lived in London. So, the population of London kept expanding through the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
During the First World War, London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods.
This increased the number of large factories, which in turn increased the number of people
coming to the city in search of work.
What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the
nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.
Changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the
twentieth century were primarily based on industrial and technological advancements.
Consequently, women had to work in households for a living, and this led to an increase in the
number of domestic servants. Some women also began to earn by lodging out rooms, tailoring,
washing or making matchboxes. With the coming of the First World War though, women once
again joined the industrial sector.
How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following? Illustrate with
(a) A private landlord
(b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order
(c) A leader of a political party
(a) The existence of a large urban population means that there would be greater number of
individuals in need of a place to stay. This increased demand for places of residence is
profitable for private landlords who can then rent out rooms at high rates. In nineteenth-century
London, individual landowners made huge profits by taking advantage of the helplessness of
the hoards of migrants in the city who needed a place to live.
(b) The existence of a large urban population means that there are increased cases of crimes,
social conflict and rebellion. Police are responsible for maintaining the law and order. Hence,
a police superintendent would definitely have increased work on his/her hands. In nineteenth-
century London, policemen had a tough time controlling crime during the migrant influx. In
the 1870s, there were 20,000 criminals living in London. The job of a policeman was made
more complex in hunting down pick-pockets, thieves, cheats and tricksters whose numbers
(c) The existence of a large urban population implies the simultaneous presence of several
social problems, such as problems of housing, food, water, etc. These issues become policial
issues when they are taken up by political parties. A political party and its leaders can mobilise
the masses to support them in these political causes. This was the case in nineteenth-century
London as well.
Give explanations for the following:
(a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth
(b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
(c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century?
(a) Well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth
century on account of three reasons: one-room houses of the poor came to be seen as the
breeding ground of diseases, and hence, a threat to public health; fire hazards became a worry
in these over-crowded, badly ventilated, unhygienic homes; lastly, there was a widespread fear
of social disorder, especially after the 1917 Russian Revolution. Housing schemes were
undertaken to avoid a rebellion by the poor.
(b) Bombay became an attractive destination for people seeking jobs after the British
administration replaced Surat with Bombay as its principal western port. The consequent
increase in trade and industries led to a great influx of people. Thus, migrants were (and still
are) an important facet of Bombay. Most of the people in the film industry were migrants
themselves, and wanted to portray the plight of this class of people through films. Thus, a
number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
(c) In mid-seventeenth century, Bombay became East India Company’s principal western port,
replacing Surat. Later, by the end of the nineteenth century, it had become an important
administrative as well as industrial centre. All through these years, the prospects for trade and
commerce, and employment kept increasing, thereby making Bombay an attractive destination
What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure
activities for the people.
Forms of entertainment that came up in nineteenth-century England to provide leisure activities
for the people were aplenty. For the upper classes, an annual “London Season” was one of the
sources of leisure. It comprised the opera, the theatre and classical music events. For the
working classes, pubs, discussions and meetings for political action served the same purpose.
Libraries, art galleries and museums were new types of entertainment brought about through
the utilisation of state money. Music halls and cinema theatres too became immensely popular
with the lower classes. Industrial workers were encouraged to undertake seaside vacations to
rejuvenate from the banes of working in the polluting environment of factories.
Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the Underground railway. Why
was the development of the Underground criticised?
The development of suburbs as a part of the drive to decongest London led to the extension of
the city beyond the range where people could walk to work. Though these suburbs had been
built, the people could not be persuaded to leave the city and stay far away from their places of
work in the absence of some form of public transport. The Underground railway was
constructed to solve this housing problem.
The development of the Underground was criticised because underground travelling was
considered risky. Many felt that it added to the mess and unhygienic conditions of the city.
Also, to clear the path for the construction of the Underground, a number of houses were
destroyed. This led to the displacement of a great number of London poor.
Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. To what extent would you support or
oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper, to either support
or oppose this, giving reasons for your view.
Haussmanisation of Paris refers to the re-building of Paris by Baron Haussmann in the mid-
eighteenth century. When Louis Napoleon III came to power, he appointed Haussmann as the
chief architect of the new city. He laid out new streets, straight sidewalks, boulevards and open
avenues, and planted full-grown trees. Haussmann’s architectural plans had positives as well
as negatives. His name has become a representation of forcible reconstruction to enhance the
beauty of a city and impose order. This is because his plans led to the displacement of 350,000
people from the centre of Paris. This included many poor people who were now rendered
Nevertheless, this “Haussmanisation of Paris” had its boons too. Public works employed nearly
one in five working people. Haussmann’s work was criticised by the wealthy and poor alike
during his time, but Paris became a symbol of civic pride for the French and it became the
nucleus of many new architectural, social and intellectual developments that influenced other
parts of the world in the twentieth century.
To what extent does government regulation and new laws solve problems of pollution? Discuss
one example each of the success and failure of legislation to change the quality of
(a) public life
(b) private life
Government laws play an important role in controlling the rates of pollution in a city. However,
simply passing laws is not enough. They need to be properly enforced as well. It is also a fact
that people tend to find ways of getting around laws. So, apart from legislations, government
also needs to carry out intensive public awareness programmes aimed at educating the public
about the need and ways of controlling pollution; and about how they too have a stake in
environmental governance. Example to show the success of legislation to change the quality of
Public life – The Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission, established as per the Bengal Smoke
Nuisance Act of 1905, was successful in controlling industrial smoke in colonial Calcutta.
Private life – The British government passed the Clean Air Act in 1956. This law was aimed at
controlling domestic sources of smoke pollution, and to do so, it introduced the concept of
smokeless zones. In these areas, smokeless fuels had to be burnt. As a result, air pollution in
British cities was substantially reduced. Example to show the failure of legislation to change
the quality of Public life – By the 1840s, British cities such as Derby, Leeds and Manchester
had smoke control laws in place. However, these laws did not succeed much in controlling
smoke emission. Since smoke is not easy to monitor or measure, it was easy for factory and
steam engine owners to get away with small adjustments to their machinery, and this did
nothing to stop smoke.
Private life – During the colonial period, a huge population depended on dung and wood as fuel
in their daily life. This was an important source of air pollution in Calcutta. Though successful
in controlling industrial smoke, the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission found it difficult to
control this domestic smoke.
[Note: The following can also be a possible answer to the second part of this question.]
Example to show the success of legislation to change the quality of
Public life – The British state used public funds to provide for entertainment forms such as
museums, art galleries and libraries for the working classes.
Private life – British administrative officials built houses in new suburbs for fulfilling the
housing needs of the working classes. Example to show the failure of legislation to change the
Public life – The Underground railway enhanced transport, but caused the demolition of many
houses, rendering their inhabitants homeless.
Private life – The availability of one-room tenements and no housing facilities for a major part
of the industrial revolution time period caused the family to get divided into smaller units.
There were even cases where rural people had to leave their families behind and live alone in
the urban areas where they worked.
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