NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science (Economics) Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 10 Social Science (Economics) Chapter 2. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 2 titled Sectors of the Indian Economy of Social Science (Economics) taught in class 10. If you are a student of class 10 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Social Science (Economics), then you must come across chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science (Economics) Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors Of The Indian Economy
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|Subject||Social Science Economics|
|Book||Understanding Economic Development|
Sectors Of The Indian Economy
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science Economics chapter 2 Sectors Of The Indian Economy
Class 10, Social Science Economics chapter 2, Sectors Of The Indian Economy solutions are given below in PDF format. You can view them online or download PDF file for future use.
Sectors Of The Indian Economy
Q.1: Complete the above table to show how sectors are dependent on each other.
Q.2: Explain the difference between primary, secondary and tertiary sectors using examples other than those mentioned in the text.
Ans : (a) Primary Sector It is connected with extraction and production of natural resources e.g., (b) Secondary Sector It is concerned with the processing of materials which have already been extracted at the primary stage e.g., making jewellery from gold (c) Tertiary Sector It is concerned with providing support services to primary and secondary sector e.g„ insurance.
Q.3: Classify the following list of occupations under primary, secondary and tertiary sectors: Tailor Basket weaver Flower cultivator Milk vendor Fishermen Priest Courier Workers in match factory Moneylender Gardener Potter Bee-keeper Astronaut Call centre employee
Q.4: Students in a school are often classified into primary and secondary or junior and senior. What is the criterion that is used? Do you think this is a useful classification? Discuss.
Ans : Students are often classified into primary and secondary or junior and senior. They are classified on the basis of the class in which they study. Yes, I think this is a useful classification because we cannot classify all of them on the basis of age.
Q.1: What does the history of developed countries indicate about the shifts that have taken place between sectors?
Ans : The history of developed countries indicates that there has been a major shift from the secondary sector, i.e., manufacturing and industries, to the tertiary sector, i.e., services. The service sector has become the most important sector of the economy and most of the employed people in the developed countries are employed in this sector.
Q.2: Correct and arrange the important aspects for calculating GDP from this Jumble. To count goods and services we add the numbers that are produced. We count all those that were produced in the last five years. Since we shouldn’t leave out anything we add up all these goods and services.
Ans : We count the value of all those final goods and services that were produced in the particular year.
Q.3: Discuss with your teacher how you could calculate the total value of a good or service by using the method of value added at each stage.
Ans : DIY
Q.1: Which was the largest producing sector in 1973-74?
Ans : Primary sector.
Q.2: Which is the largest producing sector in 2013-14?
Ans : Tertiary sector.
Q.3: Can you say which sector has grown the most over forty years?
Ans : The tertiary sector has grown the most aver thirty years.
Q.4: What was the GDP of India in 2013-14?
Ans : The total GDP was 2, 10,000 crore rupees.
Q.1: Complete the table using the data given in Graphs 2 and 3 and answer the question that follows. Ignore if data are not available for some years. What are the changes that you observe in the primary sector over a span of forty years?
Ans : Graph 2 Share of Sectors in GDP (%) Share of Primary Sector in GDP and Employment While the share in GOP has reduced drastically from 45% to 25%, the share of employment has reduced by a much lesser amount, from 74% to 61%.
Q.2: Choose the correct answer: Underemployment occurs when people (i) do not want to work (ii) are working in a lazy manner (iii) are working less than what they are capable of doing (iv) are not paid for their work
Ans : (iii) are working less than what they are capable of doing.
Q.3: Compare and contrast the changes in India with the pattern that was observed for developed countries. What kind of changes between sectors were desired but did not happen in India?
Ans : In India, both the secondary and tertiary sectors are increasing at the expense of the primary sector, but the increase in tertiary sector is more For India to become a strong industrialized nation, the secondary sector should have increased more, but this is not happening due to variety of reasons.
Q.4: Why should we be worried about underemployment?
Ans : We should worry about underemployment as due to this, the earning capacity of a person is reduced, resulting in a poor standard of Ultimately this can also lead to poverty.
Q.1: Why do you think MGNREGA 2005 is referred to as ‘ Right to work’ ?
Ans : In NREGA, if the government fails in its duty to provide employment it will give unemployment allowances to the people so it is, in effect giving the persons the right to work
Q.2: Imagine that you are the village head. In that capacity suggest some activities that you think should be taken up under this Act that would also increase the income of people? Discuss.
Ans : Many activities under MGNREGA can be taken up including (i) Water conservation and water harvesting (ii) Drought proofing by digging tube wells. (iii) Constructing irrigation canals far crops. (iv) Making provision of irrigation facility on the lands of disadvantaged sections SCS and STs and other. (v) Renovation of traditional water bodies (e.g„ tanks) (vi) Land development for agriculture, horticulture, etc. (vii) Constructing check dams for flood control and protection (viii) Construction of roads for improving rural connectivity to provide all-weather access to the villages.
Q.3: How would income and employment increase if farmers were provided with irrigation and marketing facilities?
Ans : (i) Farmers require transporting their products to a nearby town for sales. If the government invests some money in transportation and storage of crops or makes better rural roads so that mini trucks can reach everywhere, this activity can provide productive employment to not just farmers but also others such as those in services like transport or trade. (ii) Suppose a new dam is constructed and canals are dug to irrigate the agricultural I and, it could lead to a lot of employment generation within the agricultural sector itself and in reducing the problem of underemployment, besides increasing the crop yield
Q.4: In what ways can employment be increased in urban areas?
Ans : To increase employment in urban areas, we will need to carry out the following tasks (i) Invest in basic industries which provide mass employment. (ii) Improve local and inter-city transportation so that more people can be employed to work in the transportation industry. (iii) Increasing vocational education courses, so that people educated for a vacation get jobs easily. (iv) Give incentives for industry in urban areas to increase their capacity.
Q.1: Look at the following examples. Which of these are unorganised sector activities? (i) A teacher taking classes in a school (ii) A headload worker carrying a bag of cement on his back in a market (iii) A farmer irrigating her field (iv) A doctor in a hospital treating a patient (v) A daily wage labourer working under a contractor (vi) A factory worker going to work in a big factory (vii) A handloom weaver working in her house
Ans : (ii) A head load worker carrying a bag of cement on his back in a market under a contractor. (iii) A farmer irrigating her field (v) A daily wage labourer working (vii) A handloom weaver working in her house.
Q.2: Talk to someone who has a regular job in the organised sector and another who works in the unorganised sector. Compare and contrast their working conditions in all aspects.
Ans : Comparison of Working Conditions in the Organized and unorganized Sectors.
Q.3: How would you distinguish between organised and unorganised sectors? Explain in your own words.
Ans : Distinctions between organized sector and unorganized sector are as follows
Q.4: The table below shows the estimated number of workers in India in the organised and unorganised sectors. Read the table carefully. Fill in the missing data and answer the questions that follow. What is the percentage of people in the unorganised sector in agriculture? Do you agree that agriculture is an unorganised sector activity? Why? If we look at the country as a whole, we find that ———% of the workers in India are in the unorganised sector. Organised sector employment is available to only about ———% of the workers in India.
Ans : (i) It is not possible to answer this question, as the proportion of agriculture sector people out of the total number of people in unorganized sector is not given. (ii) Yes, agriculture in India is an activity of the unorganized sector, because (a) Most of the workers working in agriculture are not paid on regular basis. (b) Agriculture sector faces the problem of underemployment. (c) They are not given appointment letters, there is no security of job and there is no system of leaves or weekly offs. (d) Most of the farmers are dependent on moneylenders and relatives for their loan requirements. (iii) 93%, 7%
Q.1: Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket: (i) Employment in the service sector _________ increased to the same extent as production. (has / has not) (ii) Workers in the _________ sector do not produce goods. (tertiary / agricultural) (iii) Most of the workers in the _________ sector enjoy job security. (organised / unorganised) (iv) A _________ proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large / small) (v) Cotton is a _________ product and cloth is a _________ product. (natural / manufactured) (vi) The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are _________. (independent / interdependent)
Ans : (i) Employment in the service sector has not increased to the same extent as production. (ii) Workers in the tertiary sector do not produce goods. (iii) Most of the workers in the organised sector enjoy job security. (iv) A large proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (v) Cotton is a natural product and cloth is a manufactured product. (vi) The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are interdependent .
Q.2: Choose the most appropriate answer. (a) The sectors are classified into public and private sector on the basis of: (i) employment conditions (ii) the nature of economic activity (iii) ownership of enterprises (iv) number of workers employed in the enterprise (b) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in ______________ sector. (i) primary (ii) secondary (iii) tertiary (iv) information technology (c) GDP is the total value of _____________ produced during a particular year. (i) all goods and services (ii) all final goods and services (iii) all intermediate goods and services (iv) all intermediate and final goods and services (d) In terms of GDP the share of tertiary sector in 2003 is _________ (i) between 20 per cent to 30 per cent (ii) between 30 per cent to 40 per cent (iii) between 50 per cent to 60 per cent (iv) 70 percent
Ans : (a) (iii) (b) (i) (c) (ii) (d) (iii)
Q.3: Match the following:
Q.4: Find the odd one out and say why. (i) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter (ii) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer (iii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable (iv) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, SAHARA Airlines, All India Radio
Ans : (i) Tourist guide He is appointed by the government, while dhobi, tailor and potter belong to the private sector. (ii) Vegetable vendor His is the only profession that does not require a formal education. (iii) Cobbler The rest are workers in the public sector, while his profession is part of the private sector. (iv) SAHARA Airlines It is a private enterprise, while the rest are government undertakings.
Q.5: A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following. Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city?
Ans : The percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city is 70%.
Q.6: Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how.
Ans : The classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful on account of the information it provides on how and where the people of a country are employed. Also, this helps in ascertaining as to which sector of economic activity contributes more or less to the country’s GDP and per capita income. If the tertiary sector is developing much faster than the primary sector, then it implies that agriculture is depleting, and the government must take measures to rectify this. The knowledge that the agricultural profession is becoming unpopular or regressive can only come if we know which sector it belongs to. Hence, it is necessary to classify economic activities into these three basic sectors for smooth economic administration and development.
Q.7: For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss.
Ans : For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter, one should focus on employment and GDP because these determine the size of a country’s economy. A focus on employment and GDP helps determine two important things—per capita income and productivity. Hence, in each of the three sectors, employment rate and status as well as its contribution to the GDP help us understand how that particular sector is functioning and what needs to be done to initiate further growth in it.
Q.8: Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice.
Ans : DIY
Q.9: How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.
Ans : The tertiary sector is different from the other sectors because it does not manufacture or produce anything. For this reason, it is also known as the service sector. It aids the primary and secondary sectors in development. The tertiary sector involves services like transport, storage of goods, communications, banking and administrative work.
Q.10: What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.
Ans : Disguised unemployment is a form of underemployment where one has a job but the work is divided. It is not apparent as compared to someone without a job who is clearly unemployed. In rural areas, this can be seen in the farming community where all members of a family might be working on a farm even though so many hands are not required. They do so because of lack of another job. In urban areas, disguised unemployment can be seen in the service sector where painters, plumbers, repair persons and those doing odd jobs have work but they may not find daily or regular employment.
Q.11: Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.
Ans : Open unemployment is when a person has no job in hand and does not earn anything at all. Disguised unemployment, on the other hand, is mostly found in the unorganised sector where either work is not consistently available or too many people are employed for some work that does not require so many hands. This is the essential difference between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.
Q.12: “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans : “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of the Indian economy”. This statement is not true. The tertiary sector has contributed vastly to the Indian economy, especially in the last two decades. In the last decade, the field of information technology has grown, and consequently, the GDP share of the tertiary sector has grown from around 40% in 1973 to more than 50% in 2003.
Q.13: Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?
Ans : Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. These are primary and ancillary workers. Primary workers include those who directly provide services while ancillary workers are composed of those who give services to the service providers. For example, consultants make available their services to consultancy firms etc.
Q.14: Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans : Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. I agree with this view. The unorganised sector does not offer any job security. Neither does it allow for scope of trade or workers’ unions. Workers can be easily exploited in this scenario. They cannot afford to rebel against an employer’s tyranny as the latter can fire them at any time.
Q.15: How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
Ans : On the basis of employment conditions, activities in the economy are classified as organised and unorganised. The organised sector offers job security and employment benefits, while the unorganised sector is marked by low wages and lack of job security. In rural areas, the unorganised sector comprises landless agricultural labourers, sharecroppers and artisans. In urban areas, this group contains small-scale industry workers, construction workers, street vendors, rag-pickers, etc.
Q.16: Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors.
Ans : The employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors are vastly different. The organised sector has companies registered with the government and hence, it offers job security, paid holidays, pensions, health and other benefits, fixed working hours and extra pay for overtime work. On the other hand, the unorganised sector is a host of opposites. There is no job security, no paid holidays or pensions on retirement, no benefits of provident fund or health insurance, unfixed working hours and no guarantee of safe work environment.
Q.17: Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.
Ans : The objective of implementing the NREGA 2005 was to provide 100 days of guaranteed employment to those people in rural India who can work, and are in need of work. This Right to Work has been implemented in 200 districts. If the government is unable to provide this employment, then it has to give unemployment allowances to the people.
Q.18: Using examples from your area compare and contrast the activities and functions of private and public sectors.
Ans : DIY
Q.19: Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.
Q.20: Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.
Ans : A few examples of public sector activities are provision of water, electricity and some modes of transport. The government has taken these up because water and power are needed by everyone. If the work of providing electricity and water is left to private enterprises, the latter might exploit this opportunity and sell these at rates which the masses cannot afford. Hence, to ensure that basic amenities like water and power are available for all, the government supplies these at low and affordable rates.
Q.21: Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.
Ans : The public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation by not mere financial profits. The public sector plays a vital role in contributing to the Human Development Index via its functioning in health and education services. Also, by buying food grains at a “fair price” from farmers, providing electricity, water, postal services at low rates, the government ensures that the people have a good living. It utilises taxes and grants to pay for the same. Thus, it plays a vital role in adding to the economic development of a nation, based on its human development situation.
Q.22: The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. Explain with examples.
Ans : The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. In the construction sector, labourers are employed on a daily basis. Hence, they have no job security. Here, wages too differ from time to time. Consequently, the government has set up a minimum wages act to protect such workers from economic exploitation. The same problem exists for miners working in private mining companies. Their safety is secondary to the company’s profits, and as a result, many miners suffer grievous injuries (and many a times, even die) due to inadequate safety gear and norms. Governments of most nations have now laid down strict rules for private enterprises to ensure workers’ safety. Most companies in the unorganised sector do not provide health insurance to their employees. Some of these might be involved in dangerous factory production that may harm a worker’s health in the long term. These workers need to be protected against the tyranny of the employer, and it is here that the government steps in.
Q.23: A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganised sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997-1998) was Rs 60,000 million. Out of this Rs 32,000 million was generated in the organised sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?
Ans : Ways to generate more employment in the city of Ahmedabad have to be provided by the government, especially in the unorganised sector. As the table shows, the organised sectorPoint of View of Employers They prefer to employ workers on flexible basis, i.e., employ them when required. This means the workers are employed on temporary basis for the period when they are required. In case extra work is there for a short period, i.e., 'in season', the workers can be paid overtime wages. In case the work is machinery based and there are only a limited number of machines, workers can be employed in shifts, including night shift. This will ensure delivery of finished products in time to the customers. Point of View of Workers They always prefer permanent employment so that they can have a regular income to look after their families. They will then also get the other benefits of regular employment like provident fund, gratuity, etc. earnings are much higher than that of the unorganised sector even though the latter employs almost 80% of the city workers. More companies need to be brought under the roof of the organised sector so that workers from the unorganised sector are attracted to jobs there, with higher and more secure wages. For this, the government must provide loans and aid to companies transferring from unorganised to organised sectors.
Q.24: The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors: (i) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GDP for 1950 and 2000. (ii) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter. (iii) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph?
Ans : (i) In 1950, primary sector = 57.97%, secondary sector = 13.77%, tertiary sector = 28.26% In 2000, primary sector = 27.33%, secondary sector = 24.37%, tertiary sector = 48.30% (ii) (iii) We can draw the conclusion that the share of the tertiary sector in the GDP has almost doubled, while that of the primary sector has almost halved. The secondary sector has grown by about 10% in the last five years.
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