NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 3. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 3 titled The Making of a Global World of Social Science (History) taught in class 10. If you are a student of class 10 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Social Science (History), then you must come across chapter 3 The Making of a Global World. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Making Of A Global World
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|Subject||Social Science History|
|Book||India and the Contemporary World II|
The Making Of A Global World
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science History chapter 3 The Making Of A Global World
Class 10, Social Science History chapter 3, The Making Of A Global World solutions are given below in PDF format. You can view them online or download PDF file for future use.
The Making Of A Global World
Q.1: Explain what we mean when we say that the world ‘shrank’ in the 1500s.
Ans : The World 'Shrank' in the 1500s can be understood as follows (i) Europeans discovered the sea route to Asia and so trade activities became increased between Asia and Europe. (ii) The American continent was discovered only when the sea-route through the Atlantic Ocean to America was found. (iii) Due to both of the above reasons, there was increased interaction among the people living in various continents of the world, thus causing the world to 'Shrink' in metaphorical terms.
Q.1: Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
Ans : Language played a very important role in the creation of national Identity. Grimm brothers, namely Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, born in Hanau, a German ciby, wrote 'Fairy Tales' which became popular among children and adults. They brought the folktales to the public through their creations in German language which encouraged the feelings of the people to achieve freedom of the press. The Grimm brothers tried to oppose French domination that was a danger to German culture. They did a lot of work for the development of German language and creation of German Nationality in reference to identity. They also published a 32 volume dictionary of German language which was also a wider effort to oppose French domination. Poems, music, stories. folk songs, folk dances, etc are means that create the idea of a nation. Besides it they help to express and farm national feelings through the creation of shared heritage and common culture. Collective identity among the French people was created by the French revolutionaries by discouraging local dialects and encouraging French. use of vernacular language in Poland became helpful in dissemination of modern nationalist feelings among the large illiterate population. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. Due to some reasons, Polish came in use for church gathering and preaching and in due course, Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian domination.
Q.1: Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament? Explain.
Ans : The jute growers lament was that only the traders and moneylenders profited from jute cultivation, not the growers. Peasants of Bengal cultivated raw jute which was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. They grew raw jute hoping that a better time would come and there would be increase in exports. dut this did not happen as gunny exports collapsed due to the depression. Due to glut in the local market, the price of raw jute crashed by more than 60% and so they fell into heavy debt. Thus, only the traders and moneylenders profited from jute cultivation, not the farmers.
Q.1: Briefly summarise the two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience?
Ans : Two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience were (i) An industrial society based on large production is unsustainable without consumption on a large scale. For this high and permanent incomes through full employment are necessary. (ii) Economic links of country should be maintained with the outside world or other countries. To provide full employment, the governments must be well equipped with the power to control the flow of capital, labour and goods.
Q.1: Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
Ans : Examples of the different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century: i) Textiles, spices and Chinese pottery were exchanged by China, India and Southeast Asia in return for gold and silver from Europe. ii) Gold and foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, tomatoes and chillies were first exported from the Americas to Europe.
Q.2: Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
Ans : The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas because the Native American Indians were not immune to the diseases that the settlers and colonists brought with them. The Europeans were more or less immune to smallpox, but the Native Americans, having been cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years, had no defence against it. These germs killed and wiped out whole communities, paving the way for foreign domination. Weapons and soldiers could be destroyed or captured, but diseases could not be fought against.
Q.3: Write a note to explain the effects of the following: a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws. b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa. c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War. d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy. e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
Ans : (a) The British government's decision to abolish the Corn Laws resulted in losses for the agricultural sector, but progress in the industrial sector. Food began to be imported more cheaply into Britain, and thousands of workers involved in cultivation became unemployed. However, consumption increased and the industrial sector grew, with more workers being available in cities than in rural areas. (b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa caused a loss of livelihood for countless Africans. Using this situation to their advantage, colonising nations conquered and subdued Africa by monopolising scarce cattle resources to force Africans into the labour market. (c) The death of men of working age in Europe because of the World War reduced the able- bodied workforce in Europe, leading to a steady decline in household incomes and a consequent struggle to meet the living expenditure by families whose men were handicapped or killed.
Q.4: Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Ans : The impact of technology on food availability was manifold in the late nineteenth century. Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped transport food more cheaply and quickly from production units to even faraway markets. Also, refrigerated ships helped transport perishable foods such as meat, butter and eggs over long distances.
Q.5: What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?
Ans : The Bretton Woods Agreement was finalised in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA. It established the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to preserve global economic stability and full employment in the industrial world. These institutions also dealt with external surpluses and deficits of member nations, and financed post-war reconstructions.
Q.6: Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
Ans : Indentured Indian labourers in the Caribbean—facts—signed a contract stating that they would return to India after working for five years at a plantation; belonged to eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu; migrants took up the overseas jobs hoping to escape poverty and oppression in their home villages; migrants were not even informed about the long sea voyages, and some unwilling ones were abducted as well; also known as "the new system of slavery'; harsh living and working conditions; few legal rights;many escaped into the wilds; some developed new art forms for expression; some returned home after the contract period, while others stayed on
Q.7: Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
Ans : The three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange are trade flows, human capital flows and capital flows or investments. These can be explained as—the trade in agricultural products, migration of labour, and financial loans to and from other nations. India was a hub of trade in the pre-modern world, and it exported textiles and spices in return for gold and silver from Europe. Many different foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies and sweet potatoes came to India from the Americas after Columbus discovered it. In the field of labour, indentured labour was provided for mines, plantations and factories abroad, in huge numbers, in the nineteenth century. This was an instrument of colonial domination by the British.Lastly, Britain took generous loans from USA to finance the World War. Since India was an English colony, the impact of these loan debts was felt in India too. The British government increased taxes, interest rates, and lowered the prices of products it bought from the colony. Indirectly, but strongly, this affected the Indian economy and people.
Q.8: Explain the causes of the Great Depression.
Ans : The Great Depression was a result of many different factors. The post-war global economy was weak. Also, agricultural overproduction proved to be a nuisance, which was made worse by falling food grain prices. To counter this, farmers began to increase production and bring even more produce to the markets to maintain their annual incomes. This led to such a glut of food grains that prices plummeted further and farm produce was left to rot. Most countries took loans from the US, but American overseas lenders were wary about the same. When they decreased the amount of loans, the countries economically dependent on US loans faced an acute crisis. In Europe, this led to the failure of major banks and currencies such as the British pound sterling. In a bid to protect the American economy, USA doubled import duties. This worsened the world trade scenario. All these factors contributed to the Great Depression. It affected USA the worst on account of its being a global loan provider and the biggest industrial nation.
Q.9: Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
Ans : G-77 countries is an abbreviation for the group of 77 countries that demanded a new international economic order (NIEO); a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, without being victims of neo-colonialism, that is, a new form of colonialism in trade practised by the former colonial powers. The G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods Wins (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank) because these two institutions were designed to meet the financial needs of industrial and developed countries, and did nothing for the economic growth of former colonies and developing nations.
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