NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete Chapter 9 titled Heredity and Evolution of Science taught in class 10. If you are a student of class 10 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Science, then you must come across Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution
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Heredity and Evolution
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution
Class 10, Science chapter 9, Heredity and Evolution solutions are given below in PDF format. You can view them online or download PDF file for future use.
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Question & Answer
Q.1: If a trait A exists in 10% of a population of an asexually reproducing species and a trait B exists in 60% of the same population, which trait is likely to have arisen earlier?
Ans : In asexual reproduction, the reproducing cells produce a copy of their DNA through some chemical reactions. However, this copying of DNA is not accurate and therefore, the newly formed DNA has some variations. It can be easily observed in the above figure that in asexual reproduction, very few variations are allowed. Therefore, if a trait is present in only 10% of the population, it is more likely that the trait has arisen recently. Hence, it can be concluded that trait B that exists in 60% of the same population has arisen earlier than trait A.
Q.2: How does the creation of variations in a species promote survival?
Ans : Sometimes for a species, the environmental conditions change so drastically that their survival becomes difficult. For example, if the temperature of water increases suddenly, most of the bacteria living in that water would die. Only few variants resistant to heat would be able to survive. If these variants were not there, then the entire species of bacteria would have been destroyed. Thus, these variants help in the survival of the species. However, not all variations are useful. Therefore, these are not necessarily beneficial for the individual organisms.
Q.3: How do Mendel’s experiments show that traits may be dominant or recessive?
Ans : Mendel selected true breeding tall (TT) and dwarf (tt) pea plants. Then, he crossed these two plants. The seeds formed after fertilization were grown and these plants that were formed represent the first filial or Fl generation. All the Fl plants obtained were tall. Cross-pollination of tall and short plant Then, Mendel self-pollinated the Fl plants and observed that all plants obtained in the F2 generation were not tall. Instead, one-fourth of the F2 plants were short. Self-pollination of F1 plants From this experiment, Mendel concluded that the F1 tall plants were not true breeding. They were carrying traits of both short height and tall height. They appeared tall only because the tall trait is dominant over the dwarf trait.
Q.4: How do Mendel’s experiments show that traits are inherited independently?
Ans : Mendel crossed pea plants having round green seeds (RRyy) with pea plants having wrinkled yellow seeds (rrYY). Since the Fl plants are formed after crossing pea plants having green round seeds and pea plants having yellow wrinkled seeds, Fl generation will have both these characters in them. However, as we know that yellow seed colour and round seeds are dominant characters, therefore, the Fl plants will have yellow round seeds. Then this Fl progeny was self-pollinated and the F2 progeny was found to have yellow round seeds, green round seeds, yellow wrinkled seeds, and green wrinkled seeds in the ratio of 9:3:3:1. Independent inheritance of two different traits In the above cross, more than two factors are involved, and these are independently inherited.
Q.5: A man with blood group A marries a woman with blood group O and their daughter has blood group O. Is this information enough to tell you which of the traits – blood group A or O – is dominant? Why or why not?
Ans : No. This information is not sufficient to determine which of the traits - blood group A or O — is dominant. This is because we do not know about the blood group of all the progeny. Blood group A can be genotypically AA or AO. Hence, the information is incomplete to draw any such conclusion.
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