Geographical Discoveries

Factors leading to the Geographical Discoveries – Explorations of Portuguese Navigators – Colombus Discovers the New continent – Conflicting claims lead to wars – Results of Geographical Discoveries – Other Results.


The Renaissance in Europe

Factors for the Growth of Renaissance – Renaissance Art, Sculpture, Architecture and
Music in Europe.


The Reformation

Decline of the Papacy – State vs the Church – Rise of Nation States – Rise of Secular Attitude – Anti Church movements. The Reformation movement in England – The counter- Reformation. The Council of Trect (1545-63). The Society of Jesus Founded by Ignatius Loyola (1534) St. Francis Xavier (1506-1552).


The Rise of Nation States in Europe

The First Nation State in Europe – Royal Absolutism – Limitations on Royal power – Model Parliament (1295) Tudor Rulers – Bourbon Monarchy in France – Enlightened Despotism in Spain -The Habsburgs of Austria – Peter the Great (1689-1725) Westernisation of Russia under Peter – Foreign Policy – Catherine –II (The Great) War with the Turks.


American War of Independence (1776)

Development of 13 English Colonies – British Mercantilist policy – Enforcement of Mercantilist Regulations – Boston Tea Party – The First Continental Congress (1774) Skirmishes at Lexington and Concord Leads to War – Declaration of Independence (4th July 1776). The War and Results.


The French Revolution (1789)

Causes – Political Causes, Social Causes, Economic causes, Religious Causes and Intellectual Awakening, influence of American Revolution – The Role of the King. Course of the Revolution – Results – First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte (1799-1814). Congress of Vienna (1815) – Role of Prince Metternich. Napoleonic Wars – Concordat. The Bank of France, Public Works – New Educational System – Legion of Honour – Overseas Empire for France – Centralization of French administration – Importance of Napoleonic era.


Industrial Revolution

The Origin and growth of Industrial Revolution. The invention of steam Engine. Factory system in Britain – Revolution in Transport and Communication system – Significance – Effects of Industrial Revolution.


Nationalism in Europe

The Unification of Italy – The Rise of Nationalism in Italy. Mazzini (1805-72) Role of Garibaldi (1807-1862) “Young Italy” Movement – 1848 Revolution – Cavour (1810-61). Venice United with the Rest of Italy 1866 – liberation of Rome, 1870.

The Unification of Germany: Rise of Nationalism. Zollverein (Customs Union) – The
1848 Revolution in France. Failure of 1848 Revolution – King William-I and Bismarck. ‘Blood and Iron’ Policy, War with Denmark (1864). The Austro – Prussian War (1866). Franco – Prussian War (1870) – The Treaty of Frankfurt, 1871


Nationalism in China and Japan

Nationalism in China – Opium Wars and Treaty of Nanking – Anglo – Japanese Alliance
– Reform Movement in China – Dr. Sun – Yat – Sen and Chinese Revolution (1949) – Japan – Awakening of Japan opened by Commodore Perry – Meiji Restoration – Internal Reconstruction Westernization of Japan – Monroe Doctrine – Japan and the USA. Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour – War with USA – Collapse of Japan – Treaty with USA.


Russian Revolution

The Czarist Autocrats – Czar Alexander-II (1855-1881) Reactionary Rule of Alexander- III (1881-1894) Industrialization – Reign of Czar Nicholas II (1894-1971) -1905 Russian Revolution – Downfall of Czar Nicholas (March 1917) Nikolai Lenin (1870-1924) Bolshevik Revolution (7th November 1917).


First World War


Causes and Results (1914-1918) – Treaty of Versailles (1919) – League of Nations



Mustafa Kemal Pasha – Decay of Ottoman Empire – The treaty of Serves – Asia minor – Kemal Reforms and modernization of Turkey


Fascism and Nazism:

Fascism and its causes – Rise of Mussolini – His achievements.
Nazism in Germany: Rise of Nazis under Hitler – Internal policy – breakdown of the
League – Hitler’s foreign policy.


Second World War (1939-1945)

Causes – German Foreign policy – America’s entry into 2nd World War – Defeat of Axis
Powers – Establishment of UN (24th October 1945).


Science and Technology in the Modern World

Development in Science, Technology, Art, Literature and other new sources of energy – Transport and Communication – Information Technology Literature and Art in the contemporary world – The Mass Media, News Paper, Radio, Cinema, Television and Computers.

Important Maps

1. Thirteen Colonies in America
2. Unification of Germany
3. Unification of Italy

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