NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 5. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 1 titled Of Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes taught in Class 11. If you are a student of Class 11 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Psychology, then you must come across chapter 5 Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual ProcessesAfter you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes in one place
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes
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Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology chapter 5 Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes
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Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes
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Question & Answer
Q.1: Explain the functional limitations of sense organs.
Ans : Different sense organs deal with different forms of stimuli and serve different purposes. Each sense organ is highly specialised for dealing with a particular kind of information. For example, our eyes cannot see things which are very dim or very bright. Similarly our ears cannot hear very faint or very loud sounds. The same is true for other sense organs also. As human beings, we function within a limited range of stimulation. For being noticed by a sensory receptor, a stimulus has to be of an optimal intensity or magnitude. In order to be noticed a stimulus has to carry a minimum value or weight. The minimum value of a stimulus required to activate a given sensory system is called absolute threshold or absolute limen (AL). It may be noted at this point that the AL is not a fixed point; instead it varies considerably across individuals and situations depending on the people's organic conditions and their motivational states. Hence, we have to assess it on the basis of a number of trials. As it is not possible for us to notice all stimuli, it is also not possible to differentiate between all stimuli. In order to notice two stimuli as different from each other, there has to be some minimum difference between the value of those stimuli. The smallest difference in the value of two stimuli that is necessary to notice them as different is called difference threshold or difference limen (DL). Understanding of sensations is not possible without understanding the AL and DL of different type of stimuli (for example, visual, auditory), but that is not enough. Sensory processes do not depend only on the stimulus characteristics. Sense organs and the neural pathways connecting them to various brain centers also play a vital role in this process. A sense organ receives the stimulus and encodes it as an electrical impulse. For being noticed this electrical impulse must reach the higher brain centers. Any structural or functional defect or damage in the receptor organ, its neural pathway, or the concerned brain area may lead to a partial or comPlete loss of sensation.
Q.2: What is meant by light and dark adaptation? How do they take place?
Ans : Light adaptation refers to the process of adjusting to bright light after exposure to dim light. This process takes nearly a minute or two. On the other hand, dark adaptation refers to the process of adjusting to a dimly illuminated environment after exposure to bright light. This may take half an hour or even longer depending on the previous level of exposure of the eye to light. According to the classical view, light and dark adaptations occur due to certain photochemical processes. The rods have a photosensitive chemical substance, called rhodopsin or visual purple. By the action of light the molecules of this chemical substance get bleached or broken down. under such conditions the light adaptation takes place in the eyes. On the other hand, the dark adaptation is achieved by the removal of light, and thereby allowing for restorative processes to regenerate the pigment in the rods with the help of vitamin A. The regeneration of rhodopsin in rods is a time consuming process. That is why dark adaptation is a slower process than light adaptation. It has been found that people who suffer from vitamin A deficiency do not achieve dark adaptation at all, and find it really difficult to move in the dark. This condition is generally known as night blindness.
Q.3: What is colour vision and what are the dimensions of colour?
Ans : A person's ability to distinguish different shades of colour is termed as colour vision. A person having normal colour vision can distinguish seven million different shades of colour. Colour can be described in terms of three basic dimensions, called hue, saturation, and brightness. Hue is a property of chromatic colours. It refers to the name of the colour, e.g., red, blue, and green. Hue varies with wavelength, and each colour is identified with a specific wavelength. For example, blue has a wavelength of about 465 nm, and green of about 500 nm. Achromatic colours like black, white or grey are not characterised by hues. Saturation is a psychological attribute that refers to the relative amount of hue of a surface or object. The light of single wavelength (monochromatic) appears to be highly saturated. As we mix different wavelengths, the saturation decreases. The colour grey is completely unsaturated. Brightness is the perceived intensity of light. It varies across both chromatic and achromatic colours. White and black represent the top and bottom of the brightness dimension. White has the highest degree of brightness, whereas black has the lowest degree.
Q.4: How does auditory sensation take place?
Ans : Auditory sensation begins when sound enters our ear and stimulates the chief organ of hearing. Ear is the primary receptor of auditory stimuli. While its well-known function is hearing, it also helps us in maintaining our body balance. The structure of an ear is divided into three segments, called the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. Pinna collects the sound vibrations and serves them to the tympanum through the auditory meatus. From the tympanic cavity the vibrations are transferred to the three ossicles, which increase their strength and transmit them to the inner ear. In the inner ear the cochlea receives the sound waves. Through vibrations the endolymph is set in motion which also vibrates the organ of corti. Finally, the impulses are sent to the auditory nerve, which emerges at the base of cochlea and reaches the auditory cortex where the impulse is interpreted.
Q.5: Define attention. Explain its properties.
Ans : The process through which certain stimuli are selected from a group of others is generally referred to as attention Selection: A large number of stimuli impinge upon our sense organs simultaneously, but we do not notice all of them at the same time. Only a selected few of them are noticed. For example, when you enter your classroom you encounter several things in it, such as doors, walls, windows, paintings on walls, tables, chairs, students, schoolbags, water bottles, and so on, but you selectively focus only on one or two of them at one time. Alertness: Alertness refers to an individual's readiness to deal with stimuli that appear before her/him. While participating in a race in your school, you might have seen the participants on the starting line in an alert state waiting for the whistle to blow in order to run. Concentration: Concentration refers to focusing of awareness on certain specific objects while excluding others for the moment. For example, in the classroom, a student concentrates on the teacher's lecture and ignores all sorts of noises coming from different corners of the school. Search: In search an observer looks for some specified subset of objects among a set of objects. For example, when you go to fetch your younger sister and brother from the school, you just look for them among innumerable boys and girls. All these activities require some kind of effort on the part of people.
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