NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology Chapter 8 Thinking – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 8. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 8 titled of thinking taught in Class 11. If you are a student of Class 11 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Psychology, then you must come across chapter 8 Thinking After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 8 Thinking in one place
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology Chapter 8 Thinking
Here on AglaSem Schools, you can access to NCERT Book Solutions in free pdf for Psychology for Class 11 so that you can refer them as and when required. The NCERT Solutions to the questions after every unit of NCERT textbooks aimed at helping students solving difficult questions.
For a better understanding of this chapter, you should also see summary of Chapter 8 Thinking , Psychology, Class 11.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology chapter 8 Thinking
Class 11, Psychology chapter 8, Thinking solutions are given below in PDF format. You can view them online or download PDF file for future use.
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Question & Answer
Q.1: Explain the nature of thinking.
Ans : Thinking is the base of all cognitive activities or processes and is unique to human beings. It involves manipulation and analysis of information received from the environment. Such manipulation and analysis occur by means of abstracting, reasoning, imagining, problem solving, judging, and decision- making. Thinking is mostly organised and goal directed. One desires to reach the goal by planning, recalling the steps that one has already followed in the past if the task is familiar or inferring strategies if the task is new. Thinking is an internal mental process, which
Q.2: What is a concept? Explain the role of concept in the thinking process.
Ans : A concept is a mental representation of a category. It refers to a class of objects, ideas or events that share common properties. Role of concept in the thinking process: Concept formation helps us in organising our knowledge so that whenever we need to access our knowledge, we can do it with less time and effort. For making our thought process quick and efficient, we form concepts and categorise objects and events Concepts usually fall into hierarchies or levels of understanding. The levels are classified as super ordinate (the highest level), basic (an intermediate level), and subordinate (the lowest level). While speaking us mostly use basic level concepts. Children also learn basic level concepts first and then the other levels. Most of the concepts people use in thinking is neither clear nor unambiguous. They are fuzzy. They overlap one another and are often poorly defined. For example, under which category would you put a small stool? Would you put it under the category of 'chair' or under the category of table'? The answer to these questions is that we construct a model or prototype. A prototype is the best representative member of the category. Eleanor Rosch argues that in considering how people think about concepts, prototypes are often involved in real life. In prototype matching, people decide whether an item is a member of a category by comparing it with the most typical item(s) of the category. Therefore, in the above example of the stool, you would try to compare it with a standard study chair (if you consider it as the typical example of a chair) and a small study table (if you consider it as the typical example of a table) and then match the properties of the stool with these two concepts. If it matches with a chair you would put it under the category of chair otherwise under the category of table.
Q.3: Identify obstacles that one may encounter in problem solving.
Ans : Two major obstacles to solving a problem are mental set and lack of motivation. Mental Set Mental set is a tendency of a person to solve problems by following already tried mental operations or steps. Lack of Motivation: Lack of motivation is another obstacle to solving problems. Sometimes people give up easily when they encounter a problem or failure in implementing the first step. Therefore, there is a need to persist in their effort to find a solution.
Q.4: How does reasoning help in solving problems?
Ans : Reasoning is the process of gathering and analysing information to arrive at conclusions. In this sense, reasoning is also a form of problem solving. Reasoning, like problem solving, is goal directed, involves inference and can be either deductive or inductive Thus deductive reasoning begins with making a general assumption that you know or believe to be true or then drawing specific conclusion based on this assumption. In other words, it is reasoning from general to particular. Here general assumption is that people run on the railway platform only when they are getting late for the train. The man is running on the platform. Therefore, he is getting late for the train. One mistake that you are making (and generally people do commit such mistakes in deductive reasoning) is that you (they) assume but do not always know if the basic statement or assumption is true. If the base information is not true, i.e. people also run on the platform for other reasons then your conclusion would be invalid or wrong.
Q.5: Are judgment and decision-making interrelated processes? Explain.
Ans : Judgment and decision- making are interrelated processes. In decision- making the problem before us is to choose among alternatives by evaluating the cost and benefit associated with each alternative. For example, when you have the option to choose between psychology and economics as subjects in Class Xl, your decision would be based upon your interest, future prospects, availability of books, efficiency of teachers, etc. You could evaluate them by talking to seniors and faculty members and attending a few classes, etc. Decision-making differs from other types of problem solving. In decision- making we already know the various solutions or choices and one has to be selected. Suppose your friend is a very good player of badminton. S/he is getting an opportunity to play at the state level. At the same time the final examination is approaching and s/he needs to study hard for it. S/he will have to choose between two options, practising for badminton or studying for the final examination. In this situation her/his decision will be based upon evaluation of all possible outcomes. It can observe that people differ in their priorities and therefore their decisions will differ. In real life situations we take quick decisions and therefore, it is not possible always to evaluate every situation thoroughly and exhaustively.
NCERT / CBSE Book for Class 11 Psychology
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