NCERT Solutions Class 11 Sociology Chapter 9 Introducing Western Sociologists– Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 9. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 9 titled Of Introducing Western Sociologiststaught in Class 11. If you are a student of Class 11 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Sociology, then you must come across chapter 9 Introducing Western Sociologists After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 9 Introducing Western Sociologists in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Sociology Chapter 4 Introducing Western Sociologists
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Introducing Western Sociologists
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Sociology chapter 4 Introducing Western Sociologists
Class 11, Sociology chapter 4, Introducing Western Sociologists solutions are given below in PDF format. You can view them online or download PDF file for future use.
Introducing Western Sociologists
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Question & Answer
Q.1: Why is the Enlightenment important for the development of sociology?
Ans : The Enlightenment is important for the development of sociology because it helped in the development of secular, scientific and humanistic attitudes of mind during the late 17th and 18th centuries. This is because 'enlightenment' positioned the human being as the central figure of the universe, with rational thought at its core. Rational and critical thinking transformed human beings into both producer and user of all knowledge. Those who did not adopt the new ways of thinking and reasoning were deemed as deficient and primitive. This development influenced society as it was a product of human interaction. Thus, it helped sociology to grow as a rational and scientific subject with critical analysis.
Q.2: How was the Industrial Revolution responsible for giving rise to sociology?
Ans : The Industrial Revolution brought many changes in the society. The invention of new machines led to evolution in the organisation of labour and markets. The factory system and manufacturing on mass scale led to changes in modes of production and acquisition of raw materials from around the world. The growth of industries, urban space, slums and modern form of government was a social consequence of these developments. As a result, the industrial revolution caused significant changed in society, and thus the need to understand it also grew and led to the emergence of sociology. The scientific analysis of developments and study of social behaviour in industrialised societies were the main subjects of sociology. This was made possible by empirical observation and study of the information about social indicators generated by the state.
Q.3: What are the various components of a mode of production?
Ans : Karl Marx's philosophy of capitalism was based on the notion of modes of production which was associated with the historical period. The various modes of production at a general level are: (i) Primitive communism (ii) Slavery (iii) Feudalism (iv) Capitalism At a specific level, the base of production is economic and includes productive forces and production relations. The productive forces include land, labour, technology and sources of energy. Production relations refer to economic relationships and forms of labour organisation that are involved in production. Property relations are based on the ownership of means of production.
Q.4: Why do classes come into conflict, according to Marx?
Ans : According to Karl Marx, the groups with similar interests and common objectives form same classes. This formation of classes is based on a historical process, which means that in every society class, identity among the people was present. With the change in modes of production, technology and social relations, these classes became antagonist to each other, thus resulting in class conflict. For instance, in a capitalist society, there is a conflict between the capitalists and the working class. In such a society, both of them are in a direct opposition to each other and hence the class conflict arises between classes.
Q.5: What are social facts? How do we recognise them?
Ans : According to Emile Durkheim, sociology is the study of social facts. Social facts are things that are external to an individual and constrain their behaviour. They are general in nature, which means that they are collective representations of social behaviour of a group of people. Social institutions like law, education and religion also constitute social facts along with beliefs, feelings and collective practices. In order to prove that sociology is based on social facts, Durkheim carried out the study of 'suicide'. According to it, suicide is a personal choice that an individual commits, but the average rate of suicide in society reflects social behaviour and is a social fact Hence social facts can be recognised through social behaviour, and the aggregate patterns of social behaviour.
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