NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialization – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 4. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 4 titled The Age of Industrialization of Social Science (History) taught in class 10. If you are a student of class 10 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Social Science (History), then you must come across chapter 4 The Age of Industrialization. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialization in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Age Of Industrialisation
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|Subject||Social Science History|
|Book||India And The Contemporary World II|
The Age Of Industrialisation
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science History chapter 4 The Age Of Industrialisation
Class 10, Social Science History chapter 4, The Age Of Industrialisation solutions are given below in PDF format. You can view them online or download PDF file for future use.
The Age Of Industrialisation
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Question & Answer
Q.1: Explain the following: a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny. b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages. c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century. d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
Ans : (a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny because it speeded up the spinning process, and consequently, reduced labour demand. This caused a valid fear of unemployment among women working in the woollen industry. Till date, they had survived on hand spinning, but this was placed in peril by the new machine. (b) In the seventeenth century, merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages because production in urban areas could not be increased due to the presence of powerful trade guilds. These maintained control over production, regulated prices and competition, and restricted the entry of new people in the trade. Monopolisation was also a common tactic. In the countryside, there were no such rules, and impoverished peasants welcomed these merchants. (c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century on account of the growing power of European companies in trade with India. They secured many concessions from local courts as well as the monopoly rights to trade. This led to a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hooghly from where local merchants had operated. Exports slowed and local banks here went bankrupt. (d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India to establish a more direct control over the weavers, free of the existing traders and brokers in the cloth trade. The gomasthas were the paid servants who supervised the weavers, collected supplies and examined the quality of cloth. The gomasthas ensured that all management and control of the cloth industry came under the British. This helped in eliminating competition, controlling costs and ensuring regular supplies of cotton and silk products.
Q.2: Write True or False against each statement: a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 percent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector. b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century. c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India. d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
Ans : (a) False (b) True (c) False (d) True
Q.3: Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.
Ans : Proto-industrialisation is the phase of industrialisation that was not based on the factory system. Before the coming of factories, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This part of industrial history is known as proto-industrialisation.
Q.4: Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Ans : Some industrialists in nineteenth-century England preferred hand labour over machines because there was no labour shortage in the market, and as a result, there was no problem of high wage costs either. Industrialists did not wish to replace hand labour with machines that would require large capital investment. Also, in industries where the production and amount of labour required were dependent on the seasons, hand labour was preferred for its lower costs. Apart from this, many goods could only be a manufactured by hand. Machines could provide mass quantities of a uniform product. But the demand was for intricate designs and shapes; this required human skill, and not mechanical technology. Handmade products also stood for refinement and class status. It was commonly believed that machine-made goods were for export to the colonies.
Q.5: How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Ans : After establishing political power, the East India Company successfully procured regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers via a series of actions. These actions were aimed at eliminating competition from other colonial powers, controlling costs and ensuring regular supplies of cotton and silk goods for Britain. Firstly, it appointed gomasthas or paid servants to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine textile quality. Secondly, it disallowed Company weavers from dealing with other buyers. This was ascertained by a system of giving advances to the weavers for procuring raw materials. Those who took these loans could not sell their cloth to anyone but the gomasthas.
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