NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 3 titled Plant Kingdom of Biology taught in Class 11. If you are a student of Class 11 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Biology, then you must come across chapter 3 Plant Kingdom. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology chapter 3 Plant Kingdom
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Question & Answer
Q.1: What is the basis of classification of algae?
Ans : Algae are classified into three main classes — Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, and Rhodophyceae. These divisions are based on the following factors: (a) Major photosynthetic pigments present (b) Form of stored food (c) Cell wall composition (d) Number of flagella and position of insertion Class I — Chlorophyceae Common name — Green algae Major pigments — Chlorophylls a and b Stored food — Starch Cell wall composition — Cellulose Flagella number and position — 28; equal and apical Class II — Phaeophyceae Common name— Brown algae Major pigments — Chlorophylls a and c, and fucoxanthin Stored food — Mannitol and laminarin Cell wall composition — Cellulose and algin Flagella number and position — 2; unequal and lateral Class Ill — Rhodophyceae Common name — Red algae Major pigments — Chlorophylls a and b, and phycoerythrin Stored food — Floridean starch Cell wall — Cellulose, pectin, and polysulphate esters Flagella number — Absent
Q.2: When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?
Ans : Liverwort — In liverworts, the main plant-body is haploid (gametophytic). It bears the male and female sex organs which produce gametes. These gametes fuse to form a zygote. The zygote develops on the gametophytic plant-body to form a sporophyte. The sporophyte is differentiated into the foot, seta, and capsule. Many haploid spores are produced as a result of the reduction division taking place inside the capsule. Moss — In mosses, the primary protonema (developed in the first stage) develops into the secondary protonema. Both these stages are haploid or gametophytic. The secondary protonema bears the sex organs which produce gametes. These gametes fuse to form a zygote. The zygote develops into a sporophyte. Many spores are formed as a result of the reduction division taking place in the capsule of this sporophyte. Fern — In ferns, the main plant-body is sporophytic. Its leaves are known as sporophylls and these bear the sporangia. Reduction division takes place in these sporangia, thereby producing many spores. Gymnosperm — In gymnosperms, the main plant-body is sporophytic. They bear two types of leaves — microsporophylls and megasporophylls. Reduction division takes place in the microsporangia present on the microsporophylls (producing pollen grains) and on the megasporangia present on the megasporophylls (producing megaspores). Angiosperm — In angiosperms, the main plant-body is sporophytic and bears flowers. The male sex organ in the flower is the stamen, while the female sex organ is the pistil. Reduction division takes place in the anthers of the stamen (producing haploid pollen grains) and in the ovary of the pistil (producing eggs).
Q.3: Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them.
Ans : Archegonium is the female sex organ that produces the female gamete or egg. It is present in the life cycles of bryophytes, pteridophytes, and gymnosperms. Life cycle of a fern (Dryopteris) Dryopteris is a common fern with pinnately-compound leaves. The main plant-body is sporophytic. Many sporangia are borne on the lower surfaces of its mature leaves. Each sporangium has spore mother cells which undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores. On maturing, these spores dehisce and germinate to give rise to a heart-shaped gametophyte called prothallus. The prothallus bears the male and female sex organs called antheridia and archegonia respectively. The antheridia produce sperms that swim in water to reach the archegonia. The egg is produced by the archegonia. As a result of fertilisation, a zygote is formed. The zygote forms an embryo, which in turn develops into a new sporophyte. The young plant comes out of the archegonium of the parent gametophyte.
Q.4: Mention the ploidy of the following: protonemal cell of a moss; primary endosperm nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; prothallus cell of a ferm; gemma cell in Marchantia; meristem cell of monocot, ovum of a liverwort, and zygote of a fern.
Ans : (a) Protonemal cell of a moss — Haploid (b) Primary endosperm nucleus in a dicot — Triploid (c) Leaf cell of a moss — Haploid (d) Prothallus of a fern — Haploid (e) Gemma cell in Marchantia — Haploid (f) Meristem cell of a monocot — Diploid (g) Ovum of a liverwort — Haploid (h) Zygote of a fern — Diploid
Q.5: Write a note on economic importance of algae and gymnosperms
Ans : Economic importance of algae Algae have diverse economic uses. They perform half of the total carbon dioxide-fixation on earth by photosynthesis, acting as the primary producers in aquatic habitats. (a) Food source: Many species of marine algae such as Porphyra, Sargassum, and Laminaria are edible. Chlorella and Spirulina are rich in proteins. Thus, they are used as food supplements. (b) Commercial importance: Agar is used in the preparation of jellies and ice-cream. It is obtained from Gelidium and Gracilaria. Carrageenan is used as an emulsifier in chocolates, paints, and toothpastes. It is obtained from the red algae. (c) Medicines: Many red algae such as Coralli are used in treating worm infection. Economic importance of gymnosperms (a) Construction purposes: Many conifers such as pine, cedar, etc., are sources of the soft wood used in construction and packing. (b) Medicinal uses: An anticancer drug Taxol is obtained from Taxus. Many species of Ephedra produce ephedrine, which can be used in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. (c) Food source: The seeds of Pinus gerardiana (known as chilgoza) are edible. (d) Source of resins: Resins are used commercially for manufacturing sealing waxes and water-proof paints. A type of resin known as turpentine is obtained from various species of Pinus.
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