NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science (Indian Constitution) Chapter 8 Local Governments – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Political Science (Indian Constitution) Chapter 8. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 8 titled Of Local Governments taught in Class 11. If you are a student of Class 11 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Political Science (Indian Constitution), then you must come across chapter 8 Local government after you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science (Indian Constitution) Chapter 8 Local Governments in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Local Governments
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science chapter 8 Local Governments
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Question & Answer
Q.1: Constitution of India visualised village panchayats as units of self government. Think over the situation described in the following statements and explain how do these situations strengthen or weaken the panchayats in becoming units of self-government. (a) Government of a State has allowed a big company to establish a huge steel plant. Many villages would be adversely affected by the steel plant. Gram Sabha of one of the affected villages passed a resolution that before establishing any big industries in the region, village people must be consulted and their grievances should be redressed. (b) The government has decided that 20 % of all its expenditure would be done through the panchayats. (c) A village panchayat kept on demanding funds for a building for village school, the government officials turned down their proposal saying that funds are allocated for certain other schemes and cannot be spent otherwise. (d) The government divided a village Dungarpur into two and made a part of village Jamuna and Sohana. Now village Dungarpur has ceased to exist in government’s books. (e) A village panchayat observed that water sources of their region are depleting fast. They decided to mobilise village youth to do some voluntary work and revive the old village ponds and wells.
Ans : (a) It strengthens the village panchayat as the gram sabha can take decision independently for the welfare of the village people. (b) It strengthens the village panchayat as it makes more resources available at their disposal. It allows them to spend according to their local needs. (c) It weakens the village panchayat as it does not have enough funds to maintain and carry out welfare projects in the village. It has to depend on the government officials for funds. (d) It strengthens the panchayat as it creates new unit of self government and allows more power in the hands of people. (e) It strengthens the self governance of the village as it shows the ability of the village panchayat to mobilise the village to utilise their own resources without any help from the state government.
Q.2: Suppose you are entrusted to evolve a local government plan of a State, what powers would you endow to the village panchayats to function as units of self-government? Mention any five powers and the justification in two lines for each of them for giving those powers.
Ans : Any answer supported with argument or explanation would solve the purpose. It is strongly recommended that you prepare the solution on your own.However, some sample pointers have been provided for your reference: Allowing panchayats to raise their own funds-This would reduce their dependence on the higher levels of government and make them more active in development process. Starting village co-operatives at panchayat level-This would lead to development of village economy and cooperation between various panchayats. It would also generate employment and allow panchayats to directly market village produce and get better prices for the same. Authority to create and maintain infrastructure in village-This would lead to less dependence on government officials for funds and consequently, lead to autonomy. Control of village panchayat over local resources-Resources like water and pastureland should come under the village panchayat to enable their maintenance and prevent their degradation. This would engage the entire community in their conservation. Direct engagement of village panchayats with state government in matters related to development projects-This would allow them to get adequate compensation for development projects and land acquisition and reduce the role of middlemen.
Q.3: What are the provisions for the reservations for the socially disadvantaged groups as per the 73rd amendment? Explain how these provisions have changed the profile of the leadership at the village level.
Ans : The socially disadvantaged groups like women, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes have been given reservation for various posts in the local government of rural India according to the proportion of their population. One- third of all positions in panchayats are reserved for women while Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have seats reserved as per the proportion to their population. States can also provide reservation to Other Backward Classes if they think it is necessary. This has changed the profile of the leadership at the village level by transferring the leadership from the earlier dominant social groups to groups that were previously unable to have a say in the decision-making process. There is now a greater representation of all social groups in the panchayat institutions. Thus, more women and people belonging to Scheduled Castes and Tribes are now able to play important role in decisions that can bring benefits for their community.
Q.4: What were the main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after that amendment?
Ans : The main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after the amendment can be listed as: After the implementation of 73rd amendment, the local government has been divided into a uniform three-tier Panchayati Raj structure. Earlier the state administration was responsible for conducting elections to the Panchayati Raj institutions but now the state government has to appoint a state election commission for this purpose. After dissolution of the Panchayati Raj before its term of five years a fresh election has to be conducted within six months. This was not the case before the 73rd amendment was passed. Distribution of revenue between the state government and local government and between rural and urban government is done by the state election commission. This was not the case before the 73rd amendment was implemented. Reservation for women, scheduled caste and scheduled tribes and to other backward classes (if the state government thinks it is necessary for OBCs) is implemented for various positions in the local government according to the proportion of their population. Twenty-nine subjects that were earlier in the State list of subjects in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution have been transferred to the Panchayati Raj institutions.
Q.5: Read the following conversation. Write in two hundred words your opinion about the issues raised in this conversation. Alok: Our Constitution guarantees equality between men and women. Reservations in local bodies for women ensure their equal share in power. Neha: But it is not enough that women should be in positions of power. It is necessary that the budget of local bodies should have separate provision for women. Jayesh: I don’t like this reservations business. A local body must take care of all people in the village and that would automatically take care of women and their interests.
Ans : Any answer supported with argument or explanation would solve the purpose. It is strongly recommended that you prepare the solution on your own. However, one sample solution has been provided for your reference: It is correct that the Constitution has guaranteed equality between men and women. Reservations have ensured the participation of women in decision making process at the local level. There are almost 200 women Adhyakshas in Zila Panchayats, 2000 women are Presidents of the block or taluk panchayats and more than 80,000 women Sarpanch in Gram Panchayats. More than 30 women hold the positions of Mayors in Corporations, over 500 women Adhyakshas of Town Municipalities and nearly 650 women are head of Nagar Panchayats. Women have gained more power and confidence in the society. They have developed better understanding of the politics and have helped other women to know about their rights. In many cases they have given a new perspective and sensitivity to the discussions held at local bodies. However, the social status of women can only be increased through their economic independence and funds are required for this purpose. Therefore, the budget of local bodies should have provisions for women, particularly their health, education and livelihood. It is also correct to say in theory that reservations go against the nature of equality. However, there are certain issues that are best represented by the members of the particular group which is affected by them. Reservation also provides a chance to these groups to make their voice heard.Thus, reservation for women is required in the context of their socio- economic status.
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