Change of reporting verb

Reporting verb(said to)changed to Type of sentence (reported speech)
told Declarative
asked Interrogative
Asked/advised/requested/ordered Imperative

Removal of commas (Conjunction used)

Type of sentence (reported speech) Conjunction used
Declarative that
interrogative
i- yes/No type If/whether
ii- Wh-words type Wh- word
Imperative
i- Affirmative ( begins with I form) To
ii- Negative ( begins with ‘Do not” Not to

Changing the verb of reported speech

Verb (direct speech) Verb ( reported/Indirect speech)

Reporting verb (Present/future tense)

Verb (direct speech) No change

Reporting verb (Past tense)

I form II form
Is/am/are Was/were
Has/have Had
II form Had+ III form
Was/were Had been +I form + ing
Will/shall Would
Can Could
May Might
Must Must/had to
Would No change
Could No change
Might No change
Universal fact No change

Changing the personal pronouns

I person- with the speaker

II person- with the listener

III person- No change

(Refer ‘noun case’ table for changing the personal pronouns)

Solved/Unsolved exercises

1- Editing/Omission

Tips:

  •  Read the passage carefully. Identify the tense of passage.
  •  Underline the error/identify the missing word
  •  Look for errors/missing words in the use of

Editing

Solved exercises

The following passage has not been edited. There is one error in each line. Underline the error and write the incorrect word and the correction. The first one has been done as an example.

Incorrect word correction

Inactivity is the greater cause of overweight .              greater .                greatest
these days. People physical activity a-.                      _________.                __________
had decreased these days. The main reason b-.                 __________ .              __________
is there are many labour saving devices c-.                    __________ .              __________
They does not want to walk on foot. d-.                        __________.               __________
They spend enough time sitting and e-.                          __________ .              __________
watch television. Their excess weight f-.                      __________ .                __________
make them sick and they have to spend g-.                        __________.              __________
money in medicine. h-.                                           __________ .             __________

Answers

                                                                    Incorrect word                             correction
Inactivity is the greater cause of overweight                       greater                                      greatest
these days. People physical activity                                a-people                                     people‘s
had decreased these days. The main reason                           b-had                                        has
is there are many labour saving devices                             c-is                                         being
They does not want to walk on foot.                                 d-does                                       do
They spend enough time sitting and                                  e-enough                                     more
watch television. Their excess weight                               f-watch                                      watching
make them sick and they have to spend                               g-make                                       makes
money in medicine. h-in on

Unsolved exercises
The following newspaper report has not been edited. There is one error in each line. Underline the error and write the incorrect word and the correction.

.                                                                                                 Incorrect         .     word correction

A three year old girl has rescued by the police a-_________ __________

last Tuesday. She was kidnap by a neighbour b-__________ __________

due to ransom. The mother c-__________ __________

inform the police about the missing girl. d-__________ __________

a probe had supervised by the DSP himself. e-__________ __________

Greater than fifty residents were questioned .f-__________ __________

Ultimately, Rohit , one of the residents of the

colony admit the crime and disclosed g-__________ __________

where the girl was hiding h-__________ __________

Omission

Solved exercises
In the passage below one word has been omitted in each line. Put a slash (/) where the word has been omitted. Write the missing word in the space provided.

One thing we all must do to cooperate a- _______________

with police and pay heed to their advice. b-_______________

They warn us not touch unidentified, c-________________

unclaimed suspicious objects like transistors, d-________________

brief cases etc. we need watch out for e-________________

abandoned cars, scooters report the f-_________________

deatails such objects to the nearest police g-_________________

control room dialing 100. One should h-________________

not touch the objects till the bomb disposal squad arrives.

Answers

One thing we all must do /to cooperate    a- is

With/ police and pay heed to their advice.     b- the

They warn us not /touch unidentified,   c- to

/unclaimed suspicious objects like transistors,    d-and

brief cases etc. we need/ watch out for    e-to

abandoned cars, scooters /report the    f-and

details/ such objects to the nearest police    g-of

control room/ dialing 100. One should     h-by

not touch the objects till the bomb disposal squad arrives.

Unsolved exercises

In the passage below one word has been omitted in each line. Put a slash (/) where the word has been omitted. Write the missing word in the space provided. The first one has been done as an example.

The small town was the .                                      at

foot of the mountains. Most the                              a-_______________

people were farmers. There traders also                      b-________________

in the town. Though not rich were                            c-________________

happy contended. At one                                      d-________________

time the peace broken by                                     e-_________________

several robberies. The people frightened                     f-_________________

The Mayor the town called for                                g-________________

a meeting discuss the matter.                                h-________________

Sentence reordering

Tips

1- First look for the subject (Noun/ Pronoun).
2- Look for the helping verb.
3- Look for the Main Verb.
4- Look for the object (direct & indirect).
5- Also look for Wh-word.
6- Arrange the words in a meaningful sentence.

Solved exercises

1. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. The first one has been done as an example.

the watermelon/thirst quenchers/in summers/is/one of the best.
One of the best thirst quenchers in summers is the watermelon.
a- around/it is/96 countries/cultivated in/the world.
b- in Africa/about 5000 years/grown/ago/it was/first.
c- say that/at the/it was grown/some researchers/same time/in India.
d- the travellers/across a desert/it was/when they/used by/travelled.

Answers

a- It is cultivated in 96 countries around the world.
b- It was first grown in Africa about 5000 years ago.
c- Some researchers say that it was grown in India at the same time.
d- It was used by travellers when they travelled across a desert.

2. ( a) water supply/they get/they eat/from/all their/the leaves
(a) inhabited//tree leaves/so,/by koalas/in areas/of/is high/demand
(b) one group/it takes/to support/several acres/of koalas/of trees
(c) can eat/every day/each/one and a half kilograms/adult Koala/up to /of leaves

ANS: (a) They get all their water supply from the leaves they eat.
(a) So, in areas inhabited by Koalas demand of tree leaves is high.
(b) It takes several acres of trees to support one group of Koalas.
(c) Each adult Koala can eat one and a half kilograms of leaves every day.

Unsolved exercises

1. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences.
a- no parallel/discipline/of any kind/has
b- go together/duties/should/discipline/and rights
c- equally important/should be/treated/for a/they/satisfying life
d- the other/or ignored/very bad/it will/if one/prove/overlaps

2. Rearrange the following to form meaningfulsentences.

Peruvian foraging societies were already chewing coca leaves 8,000 years ago foraging societies/Peruvian/8,000 years ago/chewing coca leaves/were already
(a) showed evidence/of chewed coca/in the northwestern Peru/and calcium richrocks/ruins.
(b) such rocks/to create lime,/would have been burned/chewed with coca.
(c) contain a range/coca leaves coca leaves/known as alkaloids/of chemical Compounds.
(d) of the Incas/for medicinal purposes/of coca leaves/the chewing/was a pastime

3. a) depicted/architecture of/has been/the Veena/about 500 A.D. /in temple
b) no takers/sadly/instruments/but/of all/this mother/has/today
c) to whom/there are/students/turn to/few/ can/exponents/the rare
d) subject in /it is/a subsidiary/ not even/university curricula

4.a) paralytic attack/is/prolonged/main cause/high/of/ blood pressure/the
b) tongue, lip, and the vocal cords/people effected/can communicate/either with limbs/with a paralytic stroke
c) to answer/some can/their eyes/even blink
d) nervous system/to the voluntary/due to extensive damages/is impossible/ but in a few even a small gesture

5. a) left me/my/city/parents/her/with/they/in /went/live/when/to/the
b) morning/to/wake/used/up /the/in/she/me
c) said/in a /prayers/sings song/monotonous/morning/she/her
d) listened/ I /loved /I/ voice /because/her

Reported speech

Tips:

  •  Given dialogue is to be changed into indirect speech.
  •  Change the reporting verb.
  •  Remove commas and use conjunction.
  •  Change the pronouns and verb in the reported speech.
  •  Use a (.) at the end of every sentence.

Solved exercises

1. Read the conversation between Rama and Sita. Then report the paragraph that follows.

Rama: I am going to jungle.

Sita: Why?

Rama: I have been banished for fourteen years by father.

Sita: Oh! It is very sad. Can I go with you?

Rama: No. Stay at home to care of my old parents.

On being banished by his father, King Dasharath, Rama told Sita (a)_____________. She asked him (b)____________. Rama told that (c) __________________.Sita exclaimed saying it was very bad and asked Rama (d)_______________________. Rama asked her to stay at home to take care of my old parents.

Answers

a- that he was going to jungle.
b- why he was going to jungle.
c- he had been banished for fourteen years by father.
d-if she could go with him.

2. Read the comic strip given below and complete the paragraph

While making the list of what Charlie wanted from Santa Claus, he asked Patty howeverything. (b) __________. She could bet that (c) __________, he would find that she thought Santa (a) __________ all those toys. Patty replied that it was possible as Santa (d) __________ big eastern chain
Answers:

(a) could afford to give away
(b) everything these days is promotion
(c) if the truth were brought out
(d) was being financed by some big eastern chain

Unsolved exercises

Read the conversation between Anita and Prakash. Then report the paragraph that follows.

Anita: What do want to do this morning?

Prakash: I feel like taking a walk. It‘s so nice outside.

Anita: Great, let‘s walk around the lake in the park.

Prakash: It‘s really rocky here.

Anita: Yes, watch your steps so you don‘t trip.

Anita asked Prakash (a) _________. Prakash answered that he (b) ______ . It was so nice outside. Anita agreed to this and suggested (c) ____________. Then Prakash observed that (d) ____________. Anita cautioned him to watch his steps.

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