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National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Book for Class X
Subject: Social Science
Chapter: Chapter 1- The rise of nationalism in Europe
NCERT Solutions for Class 10th Social Science: Chapter 1 The rise of nationalism in Europe
Class X NCERT Social Science Text Book Chapter 1- The rise of nationalism in Europe is given below.
1. Write a note on:
a) Guiseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
c) The Greek war of independence
d) Frankfurt parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini: He was an Italian revolutionary who played a significant role in
promoting the idea of a unified Italian state. He believed that nations were the natural units of
mankind, and so Italy (which was then divided into a number of small states and kingdoms)
had to be forged into a single unified republic. During the 1830s, he strived to put together a
coherent programme for such a unitary Italian Republic. He also set up two secret societies,
namely Young Italy and Young Europe. These societies helped in the dissemination of his
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour: Of the seven states of Italy, only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled
by an Italian princely house. When the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite
Italy, the responsibility to establish a unified Italy fell upon this Italian state. King Victor
Emmanuel II was its ruler and Cavour was the Chief Minister. Cavour led the movement to
unite the separate states of nineteenth-century Italy. He engineered a careful diplomatic alliance
with France, which helped Sardinia-Piedmont defeat the Austrian forces in 1859, and thereby
free the northern part of Italy from the Austrian Habsburgs.
(c) The Greek war of independence: This was a successful war of independence waged by
Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against the Ottoman Empire. The Greeks were
supported by the West European countries, while poets and artists hailed Greece as the cradle
of European civilisation. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as
an independent nation.
(d) Frankfurt parliament: It was an all-German National Assembly formed by the middle-class
professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans belonging to the different German regions.
It was convened on 18 May, 1848 in the Church of St. Paul, in the city of Frankfurt. This
assembly drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a
parliament. However, it faced opposition from the aristocracy and military. Also, as it was
dominated by the middle classes, it lost its mass support base. In the end, it was forced to
disband on 31 May, 1849.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: Artistic representations of the French Revolution
show men and women participating equally in the movement. Liberty is personified as a
woman; also, liberal nationalism propounded the idea of universal suffrage, leading to
women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe. Although women had
actively participated in nationalist struggles, they were given little or no political rights; an
example being the Frankfurt parliament where women were admitted only as observers to stand
in the visitors’ gallery.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among
the French people?
The French revolutionaries took many important steps to create a sense of collective identity
among the French people. Ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen)
popularised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A
new French flag replaced the royal standard. The Estates General was renamed the National
Assembly and was elected by a group of active citizens. A central administrative system made
uniform laws for the entire nation, and regional dialects were discouraged in favour of French
as the national language.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were
Marianne and Germania were respective female allegories for the French and the German
nation. They stood as personifications of ideals like ‘liberty’ and ‘the republic’. The importance
of the way in which they were portrayed lay in the fact that the public could identify with their
symbolic meaning, and this would instil a sense of national unity in them.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.
The process of German unification was continued by Prussia after the defeat of the liberal,
middle-class Germans at the hands of the aristocrats and the military in 1848. Its chief minister
Otto von Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
Over seven years, Prussia fought three wars with Austria, Denmark and France. These wars
culminated in Prussian victory and German unification. William I, the Prussian king, was
proclaimed German Emperor in January 1871, at Versailles.
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the
territories ruled by him?
Napoleon introduced several changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the
territories ruled by him. He formulated the Civil Code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic
Code. It did away with privileges based on birth. This law established equality before law, and
also secured the right to property. Napoleon shortened administrative divisions, abolished the
feudal system, and freed peasants from manorial dues and serfdom. Transport and
communications were improved too.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social
and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
The 1848 revolution of the liberals refers to the various national movements pioneered by
educated middle classes alongside the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants
and workers in Europe. While in countries like France, food shortages and widespread
unemployment during 1848 led to popular uprisings, in other parts of Europe (such as
Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire), men and women of the liberal
middle classes came together to voice their demands for the creation of nation-states based on
parliamentary principles. In Germany, for example, various political associations comprising
middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in Frankfurt to
form an all-German National Assembly. This Frankfurt parliament drafted a constitution for a
German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. Though such liberal
movements were ultimately suppressed by conservative forces, the old order could never be
restored. The monarchs realised that the cycles of revolution and repression could only be
ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.
The political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were clearly based on
democratic ideals. Politically, they demanded constitutionalism with national unification—a
nation-state with a written constitution and parliamentary administration. They wanted to rid
society of its class-based partialities and birth rights. Serfdom and bonded labour had to be
abolished, and economic equality had to be pursued as a national goal. The right to property
was also significant in the liberals’ concept of a nation based on political, social and economic
Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in
Apart from wars and territorial expansion, culture also played a crucial role in the development
of nationalism. Romanticism was a European cultural movement aimed at developing national
unity by creating a sense of shared heritage and common history. The Romantic artists’
emphasis on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings gave shape and expression to nationalist
sentiments. The strength of art in promoting nationalism is well exemplified in the role playedby European poets and artists in mobilising public opinion to support the Greeks in their
struggle to establish their national identity.
Folk songs, dances and poetry contributed to popularising the spirit of nationalism and patriotic
fervour in Europe. Collecting and recording the different forms of folk culture was important
for building a national consciousness. Being a part of the lives of the common people, folk
culture enabled nationalists to carry the message of nationalism to a large and diverse audience.
The Polish composer Karol Kurpinski celebrated and popularised the Polish nationalist
struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into
Language also played a distinctive role in developing nationalist feelings in Europe. An
example of this is how during Russian occupation, the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol
of struggle against Russian dominance. During this period, Polish language was forced out of
schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. Following the defeat of an armed
rebellion against Russian rule in 1831, many members of the clergy in Poland began using
language as a weapon of national resistance. They did so by refusing to preach in Russian, and
by using Polish for Church gatherings and religious instruction. The emphasis on the use of
vernacular language, the language of the masses, helped spread the message of national unity.
Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth
The development of the German and Italian nation states in the nineteenth century
Political fragmentation: Till the middle of the nineteenth century, the present-day nations of
Germany and Italy were fragmented into separate regions and kingdoms ruled by different
Revolutionary uprisings: Nineteenth-century Europe was characterised by both popular
uprisings of the masses and revolutions led by the educated, liberal middle classes. The middle
classes belonging to the different German regions came together to form an all-German
National Assembly in 1848. However, on facing opposition from the aristocracy and military,
and on losing its mass support base, it was forced to disband.
In the Italian region, during the 1830s, revolutionaries like Giuseppe Mazzini sought to
establish a unitary Italian Republic. However, the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848
failed to unite Italy.
Unification with the help of the army: After the failure of the revolutions, the process of
German and Italian unification was continued by the aristocracy and the army. Germany was
united by the Prussian chief minister Otto von Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and
bureaucracy. The German empire was proclaimed in 1871.
The Italian state of Sardinia-Piedmont played a role similar to that played by Prussia. Count
Camillo de Cavour (the Chief Minister) led the movement to unite the separate states of
nineteenth-century Italy with the help of the army and an alliance with France. The regions
annexed by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts joined with the northern regions to form a
united Italy. The italian nation was proclaimed in 1861. The Papal States joined in 1870.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
The history of nationalism in Britain was unlike that in the rest of Europe in the sense that it
was forced down upon the masses. There was no concept of a British nation prior to the
eighteenth century. The region was in fact inhabited by different ethnic groups (English, Welsh,
Scot, Irish). Each group had its own cultural and political tradition. However, as the English
state grew in terms of wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over
the other states of the islands. The English parliament, which had seized power from the
monarchy, played a crucial role in doing away with the ethnic distinctions and uniting the
different groups into a British nation-state, with England at its centre. The ethnic nationalities
were, directly or indirectly, forced to join the English state to form the United Kingdom of
Great Britain. The symbols of new Britain—the British flag, the national anthem and the
English language were widely popularised, while the distinctive identities of the other joining
states were systematically suppressed. English culture dominated the British nation, while the
other states became mere subsidiaries in the Union. Thus, nationalism in Britain did not come
about as a result of the people’s desire to unite or countrywide movements for the same, but
from the decisions of the people in power.
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
Nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans because of the spread of ideas of romantic
nationalism as also the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire that had previously ruled over
this area. The different Slavic communities in the Balkans began to strive for independent rule.
They were jealous of each other and every state wanted more territory, even at the expense of
others. Also, the hold of imperial power over the Balkans made the situation worse. Russia,
Germany, England, Austro-Hungary all wanted more control over this area. These conflicts
ultimately led to the First World War in 1914.