NCERT Solutions Class 11 Geography Chapter 4 Distribution of Oceans And Continents– Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 4. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 4 titled Of Distribution of Oceans And Continentstaught in Class 11. If you are a student of Class 11 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Geography, then you must come across chapter 4 Distribution of Oceans And Continents After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 4 Distribution of Oceans And Continents in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Geography Chapter 4 Distribution Of Oceans And Continents
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|Book||Fundamentals Of Physical Geography|
Distribution Of Oceans And Continents
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Geography chapter 4 Distribution Of Oceans And Continents
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Distribution Of Oceans And Continents
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Question & Answer
Q.1: Multiple choice questions. (i) Who amongst the following was the first to consider the possibility of Europe, Africa and America having been located side by side. (a) Alfred Wegener (b) Antonio Pellegrini (c) Abraham Ortelius (d) Edmond Hess (ii) Polar fleeing force relates to: (a) Revolution of the Earth (b) Gravitation (c) Rotation of the earth (d) Tides (iii) Which one of the following is not a minor plate? (a) Nazca (b) Arabia (c) Philippines (d) Antarctica (iv) Which one of the following facts was not considered by those while discussing the concept of seafloor spreading? (a) Volcanic activity along the mid-oceanic ridges. (b) Stripes of normal and reverse magnetic field observed in rocks of ocean floor. (c) Distribution of fossils in different continents. (d) Age of rocks from the ocean floor. (v) Which one of the following is the type of plate boundary of the Indian plate along the Himalayan mountains? (a) Ocean-continent convergence (b) Divergent boundary (c) Transform boundary (d) Continent-continent convergence
Ans : (i) (c) Abraham Ortelius (ii) (c) Rotation of the earth (iii) (d) Antarctica (iv) (c) Distribution of fossils in different continents. (v) (d) Continent-continent convergence
Q.2: Answer the following questions in about 30 words. (i) What were the forces suggested by Wegener for the movement of the continents? (ii) How are the convection currents in the mantle initiated and maintained? (iii) What is the major difference between the transform boundary and the convergent or divergent boundaries of plates? (iv) What was the location of the Indian landmass during the formation of the Deccan Traps?
Ans : (i) Wegener suggested that the movement responsible for the drifting of the continents was caused by pole-fleeing force and tidal force. The polar-fleeing force relates to the rotation of the earth. The earth is not a perfect sphere; it has a bulge at the equator. This bulge is due to the rotation of the earth. The second force, the tidal force is due to the attraction of the moon and the sun that develops tides in oceanic waters. Wegener believed that these forces would become effective when applied over many million years. (ii) The convection currents in the mantle are generated due to radioactive elements causing thermal differences in the mantle portion. The hot material rises up from greater depths and comparatively cold material goes down from above. The occurrence of this process repetitively give birth to convection currents. (iii) (iv) The Deccan Traps were formed during the movement of the Indian plate towards the Asiatic plate. This started somewhere around 60 million years ago and continued for a long period of time. At that time, Indian landmass was located in the south of the equator.
Q.3: Answer the following questions in about 150 words. (i) What are the evidences in support of the continental drift theory? (ii) Bring about the basic difference between the drift theory and Plate tectonics. (iii) What were the major post-drift discoveries that rejuvenated the interest of scientists in the study of distribution of oceans and continents?
Ans : (i) The evidences in support of the continental drift theory are:
- The Matching of Continents (Jigsaw-Fit): The shorelines of Africa and South America facing each other have a remarkable and unmistakable match.
- Rocks of Same Age Across the Oceans: The belt of ancient rocks of 2,000 million years from Brazil coast matches with those from western Africa. The earliest marine deposits along the coastline of South America and Africa are of the Jurassic age. This suggests that the ocean did not exist prior to that time.
- Tillite: It is the sedimentary rock formed out of deposits of glaciers. The Gondwana system of sediments from India is known to have its counterparts in six different landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. The glacial tillite provides unambiguous evidence of palaeoclimates and also of drifting of continents.
- Placer Deposits: The occurrence of rich placer deposits of gold in the Ghana coast and the absolute absence of source rock in the region is an amazing fact. The gold bearing veins are in Brazil and it is obvious that the gold deposits of the Ghana are derived from the Brazil plateau when the continents lay side by side.
- Distribution of Fossils: When identical species of plants and animals adapted to living on land or in fresh water are found on either side of the marine barriers, a problem arises regarding accounting for such distribution. The observations that Lemurs occur in India, Madagascar and Africa led some to consider a contiguous landmass "Lemuria" linking these three landmasses.
- All along the mid oceanic ridges, volcanic eruptions are common and they bring huge amounts of lava to the surface in this area.
- The rocks equidistant on either sides of the crest of mid-oceanic ridges show remarkable similarities in terms of period of formation, chemical compositions and magnetic properties. Rocks closer to the mid-oceanic ridges are normal polarity and are the youngest. The age of the rocks increases as one moves away from the crest.
- The ocean crust rocks are much younger than the continental rocks. The age of rocks in the oceanic crust is nowhere more than 200 million years old.
- The sediments on the ocean floor are unexpectedly very thin.
- The deep trenches have deep-seated earthquake occurrences while in the mid oceanic ridge areas, the quake foci have shallow depths.
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