NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self And Personality – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 2 titled Self And Personality taught in Class 12. If you are a student of Class 12 who is using NCERT Textbook to study Psychology, then you must come across chapter 2 Self And Personality. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self And Personality.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self And Personality
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Self And Personality
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Psychology chapter 2 Self And Personality
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Self And Personality
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Question & Answer
Q.1: What is self? How does the Indian notion of self differ from the Western notion?
Ans : Self is an organized cognitive structure. It can be understood in terms of subject and object or I and Me. It refers to the totality of one's conscious thoughts. and feelings which pertain to one's own self. Indian Concept of Self •Self is characterized by the shifting nature of the boundaries. •The Indian view does not make rigid dichotomies. •It is based on collectivistic Indian society. Western Concept of Self. •The boundaries between self and the group are rigid. •It holds clear dichotomies between self and group. •It is based on individualistic society of the West
Q.2: What is meant by delay of gratification? Why is it considered important for adult development?
Ans : (i) Learning to delay or defer from gratification of needs is called self-control. It emerges from self- regulation. (ii)Self-regulation is behavioural component of self. (iii)lt refers to an ability to organize and monitor ones own behaviour. People who can change their behaviour according to the demands of the external environment are high on self-monitoring. (iv)Self-reguIation leads to self-control. (v)lt plays a key role in fulfilment of long-term goals. (vi)lndian culture provides us effective mechanisms like fasting (vrata or roza) and non-attachment with worldly things to develop self-control. (vii)lt is ones ability to say 'No'. Psychological techniques to develop self-control are: (a)Observation of Own Behaviour. it provides us with necessary information that may be used to change, modify, or strengthen certain concepts of self. ' (b)Self-instruction: We often instruct ourselves to do something and behave the way we want(c)Self-reinforcement It involves rewarding behaviours that have pleasant outcomes (like going to see a- movie with friends if we do well in exams). Self-control is important for the development of mature personality This is the reason that all cultures emphasise the self-control. It helps in the fulfilment of long-term goals. Indian cultural tradition provide us with certain effective mechanisms, e.g.. fasting in varta or roja and know attachment with worldly things for developing self-control _ Self-control is also important for effective functioning of social network
Q.3: How do you define personality? What are the main approaches to the study of personality?
Ans : The word 'personality is derived from the Latin word 'persona', which means a mask or false face which Greek actors used to wear when acting on stage According to Gordon Allport •Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems thqt determine his unique adjustments to his environment One of the major approaches to understanding personality was to develop theories on what t was. There are many broad personality theories, which can be grouped into four categories: (i)Dynamic approaches, which emphasize on-going interaction among motives, impulses and psychological processes. (ii)Type and train approaches, which focus on people's characteristics, stubbornness, shyness and so forth and how these characteristics are organized into systems. (iii)Humanistic approaches, which emphasize the self and the importance of the individual's subjective view of the world. (iv) Learning and behavioural approaches, which emphasize the way habits are acquired through basic learning process.
Q.4: What is trait approach to personality? How does it differ from type approach?
Ans : Trait approach psychologists explain personality on the basis of specific psychological characteristics. Type approach psycWogists believe that personality can be classified into broad categories. Traits are relatively stable. persistent and characteristic patterns of behaviour which makes the individual different from others. (i)These are overlapping. i.e.. inclusive in nature. (ii)Traits are specific psychological characteristics. e.g.. shy or timid. Types are cluster of similar traits. (i)These are broad categories. _ (ii)These do not overlap. i.e.. exclusive in nature. extrovert or introvert
Q.5: How does Freud explain the structure of personality?
Ans : The ld: (i) The ld is the original source of personality present in the newborn infant, from which the ego and super ego later develop. (ii) It consists of everything that is inherited, including the instinctual drives—sex and aggresslon. (iii) It is closely linked to the biological processes and provides the energy source—the libido for the operation of all three systems. (iv) It is totally unconscious and works on pleasure prhciples regardless of any,external potential costs of seeking the gratification of impulses The The ego develops out Of ld because of the necessity for dealing with the real world. The ego's task is to hold the ld in check until conditions allows for satisfaction of its impulses. (ii) It operates on reality principles, For example, a hungry man would want to have food at any cost due to id impulses, but it is the ego which delays tr i hunger impulse until the appropriate conditions are found. (iii)The ego is essentially the executive of the personality. It keeps a person working for a living, getting along with people and generally adjusting to the realities of life. (iv) Ego mediates between the demands of id the realities of the world and the demands of the super ego. The Super Ego: (i)lt is related to the values and morals of the society as taught to us by our parents and others. works according to social norms, (ii)lt is concerned with morality—whether various ways that could satisfy id impulses are right or wrong. The main ftmctions Of the super ego are: (i) To inhibit the unacceptable impulses of Id such as sex and aggression, (ii)Freud assumed that ld is energised by two instinctual forces, called life instinct and death instinct, Life instinct is individuals, tendency to construct whereas death instinct is for the destruction. According to Freud, life instinct is more dominant among human beings. According to Freud, the instinctual life force that energises the ld is called Libido, works on the pleasure principle, and seeks immediate gratification. It is source of energy.
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