NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History-3 Chapter 12 Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture – Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 12. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 12 titled Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture taught in Class 12. If you are a student of Class 12 who is using NCERT Textbook to study History, then you must come across chapter 12 Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 12 Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 History Chapter 3 Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
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|Book||Themes In Indian History III|
Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
NCERT Solutions Class 12 History chapter 3 Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
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Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
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Question & Answer
Q.1: To what extent are census data useful in reconstructing patterns of urbanisation in the colonial context?
Ans : A careful study of the data collected through the census provides us a lot of information in understanding the trend of urbanisation. It can be examined as under: (a) The process of urbanisation was sluggish in India after 1800. (b) In the nineteenth century and in first two decades of the twentieth century the proportion of the urban population was very low and stagnant. (c) Which recorded between 1900 and 1940, A 13% increase in the urban population which recorded between whereas during the same period, these was a overall 10% increase in the population of the whole country. (d) The data, thus, collected helps us in the enumeration of people according to their age, sex, caste, religion, occupation, etc.
Q.2: What do the terms “White” and “Black” Town signify?
Ans : The British had white skin as they were often described 'white' and they considered themselves as superior to others. On the other hand, the blacks had brown or black skin. So they were known as the 'black' The White signified their superiority over the black due to the colour of their skin. The British symbolised the Black areas full of chaos and anarchy, filth and disease and on the other hand, the white areas stood for cleanliness and hygiene. In Black areas, epidemics like cholera and plague often broke out So the British took stringent measures to ensure sanitation and public health to prevent diseases of the Black areas. They ensured underground piped water supply and introduced sewerage and drainage system in White areas. Thus, we can say, the White Towns were those parts of the colonial towns where the White people lived. These towns had wide roads, barracks, churches, parade ground, big bungalows and gardens, symbolised settled city life, whereas the Indian lived in Black Towns, were said to be unorganised and a source of filth and disease.
Q.3: How did prominent Indian merchants establish themselves in the colonial city?
Ans : The prominent Indian merchants and traders settled in colonial cities like Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. They served as agents or middlemen for the British and lived traditionally built courtyard houses in the Black Town. They centred over large tracts of land in these cities and heavily made investments for the future. They wanted to impress their British masters or colonial ruler or white people living in white towns by giving lavish parties during festivals seasons and built temples to establish their supremacy and prestige in society.
Q.4: Examine how concerns of defence and health gave shape to Calcutta.
Ans : Sirajudaula, the Nawab of Bengal in 1756, sacked the small fort from Britisher. In this fort the British traders had built to house their goods. Consequently, when Sirajudaula was defeated in the Battle of Plassey, the British built a new fort, Fort William which could not be easily attacked. Around this a vast open space was left. This open space ' was called the Maidan or garermath_ This was done for security reasons, because there would be no obstructions to a straight time of fire from the Fort against an advancing enemy army. Soon the British began to move out of the Fort. They built residences along the periphery of the Maidan_ This indicates that how the English Settlement in Calcutta began to take shape. The vast open space around the Fort William became the significant town planning measure in Calcutta (Now Kolkata). Lord Wellesley was more concerned about the conditions that existed in the cities. Cities were overcrowded, and had no sanitation facilities. He issued an administrative order in 1803 on the need for town planning and set up various committees for this purpose open places in the city would make the city healthier. As a result of this, many bazaars, ghats, burial ground and tanneries were cleared or removed After Wellesley's departure, the Lottery Committee carried on with the work of town planning in Calcutta.
Q.5: What are the different colonial architectural styles which can be seen in Bombay city?
Ans : In the past, buildings were at odds with the traditional Indian buildings. Gradually, Indians too got used to European architecture and made it their own. The British in turn adapted some Indian styles to suit their needs. One example is the bungalow which was used by government officers in Bombay. The colonial bungalow was set on extensive grounds which ensured privacy. The traditional pitched roof and surrounding veranda kept the bungalow cool in summer months. These bungalows can still be seen in the city. Other than that traditional styles of decoration and building exist. The lack of space in the city and crowding led to a type of building unique to Bombay, the chawl.
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