Tense refers to the time at which an action takes place.

Additional information

1-Types of sentences:

1- Affirmative
2- Negative
3- Interrogative

i- Yes/No type
ii- question word/Wh words type

4-Interrogative- Negative

i- Yes/No type
ii- question word/Wh words type

2- Subject

1- Singular
2- Plural

Present tense:
1-Indefinite (Simple)

Hence forth-

MV- Main verb
HV- Helping verb

Usage:

1- Habitual actions  He gets up early in the morning.

2- Scientific facts  Water boils at 1000 Centigrade.
3- Universal facts/ General truth  The sun rises in the east.

Key- words: Daily, never, always etc.

Verb:

MV- I form (Plural Subject), I form+ e/es(Singular Subject)- Affirmative sentences

HV- Do (Plural Subject)/Does (Singular Subject)-Negative & Interrogative Sentences

NB- No ‘s/es‘ with  ‘ do/does‘

2-Continuous (Progressive, Imperfect)
Usage:

1- Action taking place at the time of speaking.

I am teaching ‘The Rime of the Ancient Mariner‘ by ST Coleridge at present.

2- Action continued over a period of time in the present.

I am working on a science project nowadays.

Key- words: Nowadays, at present, these days etc.

Verb:

MV- I form + ing
HV- Is, Am, Are

3- Perfect Tense

Usage:

Just completed action.

I have completed my homework just now.

Key- words: Recently, Just now

Verb:

MV- III form
HV- Has (Singular Subject)/ Have (Plural Subject)

4- Perfect Continuous Tense

Usage:

Action started somewhere in the past but being done now.

I have been living in Baroda for the last two years.

She has been studying in this school for two years.

Key- words: Since, for

Verb:

MV- I form + ing
HV- Has been (Singular Subject)/ have been (Plural Subject)

NB- Since- Point of time
For- Period of time

Past tense:
1-Past indefinite (Simple)

Usage:

Action done in remote past.

I went to Mathura yesterday
I did not go to Mathura yesterday.

Key- words: – yesterday, last etc.

Verb:
MV- II form (Affirmative sentences)
HV- Did

NB- 1-HV ‘Did‘ is used in negative & interrogative sentences.
2- With HV ‘Did‘, I form of MV.

2-Past Continuous

Usage:

An action done progressively in the past.

He was working on a project, when I last visited him.

Key- words: those days, etc.

Verb:
MV-I form + ing
HV- was, were

3-Past Perfect

Usage:

An action completed in the past before a said time or another action.

Key- words: before, when, as soon as etc.

Verb:
MV- III form (earlier past) & II form (Past)
HV- had (earlier past)

4-Past Perfect Continuous

Usage:

An action being done continuously for the said period in the past.

She had been reading for two hours when I reached her house.

Key- words: since, for Verb:
MV- I form + ing
HV- had been

Future tense:

1- Future indefinite (Simple)

Usage:

Refers to simple action which is to take place.
I will go to Surat tomorrow.

Key- words: tomorrow, next, coming etc.

Verb:
MV- I form
HV- will, shall (Modals)

NB- 1- Ist Person (I, We) – shall
IInd & IIIrd Person (You, He/ She, It, They)-will

2- During three situations, i.e. determination, promise, threatening ‘shall ->will & will -> shall.

2-Future Continuous

Usage:

A progressive future action.

At this time tomorrow, she will be doing her homework.

Key- words: tomorrow at this time etc.

Verb:
MV- I form + ing
HV- will, shall (Modals) + be

3-Future Perfect

Usage:

Refers to an action which will be completed at the said time in future. 

e.g. I will have prepared support material by Saturday.

Key- words: after, by, etc.

Verb:
MV- III form
HV- will, shall (Modals) + have

4-Future Perfect Continuous

Usage:

An action which will begin before a definite time in the future and will just end up at that time or may continue even after that.

When I reach my school at 08:30 a.m tomorrow, the teacher will have been giving remedial classes.

Key- words: – Since, for, after three years, etc.

Verb:
MV- I form + ing

HV- will, shall (Modals) + have been

Future Time Reference

1- By using ‘will/shall’

I‘ll go to Agra tomorrow.

2- By using ‘Simple present tense’

What time does the match begin?

3- By using ‘Present Continuous tense’

The PM is leaving for America next week.

4- By using ‘Going to’ form.

I am going to take bath.

5-By using „about to‟ form,

The train is about to come.

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