Study Material

Dispersion of White Light

You must have seen and appreciated the spectacular colours in a rainbow. How could the white light of the Sun give us various colours of the rainbow? Before we take...

Twinkling of Stars

The twinkling of a star is due to atmospheric refraction of starlight. The starlight, on entering the earth’s atmosphere, undergoes refraction continuously before it reaches the earth. The atmospheric refraction...

Mirage

9.4.1 Total internal reflection in nature and its technological applications On hot summer days, the air near the ground becomes hotter than the air at higher levels. The refractive index...

Motion

In everyday life, we see some objects at rest and others in motion. Birds fly, fish swim, blood flows through veins and arteries and cars move. Atoms, molecules, planets, stars...

Defects of Vision

Sometimes, the eye may gradually lose its power of accommodation. In such conditions, the person cannot see the objects distinctly and comfortably. The vision becomes blurred due to the refractive...

Universal Law of Gravitation

10.1.1 UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION Every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force which is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to...

Force

For many centuries, the problem of motion and its causes had puzzled scientists and philosophers. A ball on the ground, when given a small hit, does not move forever. Such...

Technological Reforms in Agriculture

It was mentioned in the previous pages that agriculture has been practised in India for thousands of years. Sustained uses of land without compatible techno-institutional changes have hindered the pace...

India – Size And Location

India is one of the ancient civilisations in the world. It has achieved multi-faceted socio- economic progress during the last five decades. It has moved forward displaying remarkable progress in...

Industrial Pollution in India

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation Although industries contribute significantly to India's economic growth and development, the increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise and resulting degradation of environment that...

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