NCERT Solutions Class 8 History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside– Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 3 titled Ruling the Countryside of History taught in class 8. If you are a student of class 8 who is using NCERT Textbook to study History, then you must come across chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside in one place.
NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 3 Ruling The Countryside
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|Subject||Social Science History|
|Book||Our Past III|
Ruling The Countryside
NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science History chapter 3 Ruling The Countryside
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Ruling The Countryside
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Question & Answer
Q.1: Match the following.
Ans : ryot — village Mahal — peasant nij — cultivation on ryot's lands ryoti — cultivation on planter's own land
Q.2: Fill in the blanks: (a) Growers of woad in Europe saw __________ as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings. (b) The demand for indigo increased in late eighteenth-century Britain because of __________. (c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of __________. (d) The Champaran movement was against __________.
Ans : (a) Growers of woad in Europe saw indigo as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings. (b) The demand for indigo increased in the late-eighteenth-century Britain because of the expansion of cotton production as a result of industrialisation, which in turn created an enormous demand for cloth dyes. (c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of synthetic dyes. (d) The Champaran movement was against the indigo planters.
Q.3: Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.
Ans : In order to get a stable revenue income, most of the East India Company's officials believed that investment in land had to be encouraged and agriculture had to be improved. Debates on how this was to be done led to the introduction of the Permanent Settlement in 1793. The aim of this settlement was to ensure a regular flow of revenue for the Company. As per the settlement, rajas and taluqdars were recognised as zamindars. They were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The amount to be paid was fixed permanently and it was not to be increased ever in the future. The Company believed that as the revenue amount was fixed, the zamindars would benefit by investing in land improvement, which would in turn lead to increased production. If the zamindars failed to pay the revenue, which they usually did as the fixed revenue was very high, they lost their zamindari.
Q.4: Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.
Ans : Under the new Munro system of fixing revenue, the revenue officials fixed too high a revenue demand. This demand could not be met by the peasants. Consequently, the peasants fled the countryside and villages became deserted in many regions.
Q.5: Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?
Ans : Under the ryoti system, the indigo planters forced the ryots to sign an agreement or contract. At times, the village headmen signed the contract on behalf of the ryots. Those who signed the contract got cash advances at low rates of interest to produce indigo. The loan committed the ryot to cultivate indigo on at least 25 percent of the area under his holding. On delivering the crop to the planter, the ryot was given a new loan, and the cycle started again. The peasants realised that this system of growing indigo was in fact oppressive. The price that they got from the planters for the indigo was very low. The loans, though tempting at first, were part of a vicious cycle from which they could not escape. The planters insisted that the peasants cultivate indigo on the most fertile parts of their land, but the peasants preferred growing rice on the best soils. The reason for not wanting to grow indigo was that indigo, with its deep roots, exhausted the soil rapidly. So, after an indigo harvest, the land could not be used for sowing rice.
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