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NCERT Solutions Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory– Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 2 titled From Trade to Territory of History taught in class 8. If you are a student of class 8 who is using NCERT Textbook to study History, then you must come across chapter 2 From Trade to Territory. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory in one place.

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Trade To Territory

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Class 8
Subject Social Science History
Book Our Past III
Chapter Number 2
Chapter Name  

From Trade To Territory

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science History chapter 2 From Trade To Territory

Class 8, Social Science History chapter 2, From Trade To Territory solutions are given below in PDF format. You can view them online or download PDF file for future use.

From Trade To Territory

Q.1: Match the following:

Ans : Diwani = right to collect land revenue “Tiger of Mysore” = Tipu Sultan Faujdari = adalat criminal court Rani Channamma = led an anti-British movement in Kitoor sipahi Sepoy.

Q.2: Fill in the blanks: 
(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of ___________. 
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of ___________.
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ___________. 
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the ___________ part of India.

Ans : (a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of Plassey. (b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of Mysore. (c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of Lapse. (d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the South-Western part of India.

Q.3: State whether true or false:
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.
(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India.
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab.
(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.

Ans : (a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century. False (b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India. False (c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab. True (d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered. False

Q.4: What attracted European trading companies to India?

Ans : European trading companies ventured across the oceans so as to look for new lands from where they could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices. The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe. Indian spices like pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon too were in great demand. Hence, European trading companies were attracted to India.

Q.5: What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company?

Ans : After the death of Aurangzeb, the Bengal nawabs asserted their power and autonomy. Through the eighteenth century, the conflicts between them and the East India Company intensified. The nawabs refused to grant the Company concessions, demanded large tributes, denied it the right to mint coins, and stopped it from extending its fortifications. They claimed that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue, and also undermining their authority by refusing to pay taxes, writing disrespectful letters, and humiliating them and their officials. On its part, the Company declared that its trade was getting ruined because of the unjust demands of the local officials. It believed that trade could only flourish if the duties were removed. To expand trade, it wanted to enlarge its settlements, buy up villages, and rebuild its forts.

Q.6: How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?

Ans : On being appointed the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal, the East India Company acquired greater power and authority. It was free to make use of the vast resources of Bengal. Till then, in order to buy goods, it had to import gold and silver from Britain. After the assumption of the Diwani, the Company could use the revenues from Bengal to finance its expenses (which included purchasing cotton and silk textiles in India, maintaining its troops, and building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta).

Q.7: Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”

Ans : From 1757 to 1857, the East India Company used a variety of political, economic and diplomatic methods to annex Indian kingdoms. The subsidiary alliance was one such method. According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, and had to pay for the "subsidiary forces" that the Company had to maintain for the purpose of protecting them. If Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty. For example, in 1801, the nawab of Awadh was forced to give over half of his territory to the Company for failing to pay for the "subsidiary forces".

Q.8: In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?

Ans : Under the rule of the East India Company, the British territories were divided into administrative units called Presidencies. There were three such Presidencies — Bengal, Madras and Bombay. Each Presidency was ruled by a Governor. The supreme head was the Governor-General. The principal figure in an Indian district was the Collector whose main job was to collect revenue and taxes, and maintain law and order in his district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas. From 1772, a new system of justice was established. Under this system, each district had two courts — a criminal court (faujdari adalat) and a civil court (diwani adalat). Maulvis and pandits interpreted Indian laws for the district collectors who presided over civil courts. The criminal courts were still under a qazi and a mufti, but under the supervision of the collectors. A Supreme Court was established under the Regulating Act of 1773, and a court of appeal (Sadar Nizamat Adalat)

Q.9: Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army.

Ans : During the eighteenth century, when the East India Company began recruitment for its own army, it started recruiting peasants and began training them as professional soldiers. Like the Mughal army, the Company's army was also composed of the cavalry and the infantry regiments, with the cavalry dominating the army. However, as warfare technology changed during the nineteenth century, the cavalry requirements of the Company's army declined. As the soldiers had to be armed with muskets and matchlocks, the infantry regiments became more important.

Q.10: After the British conquest of Bengal, Calcutta grew from a small village to a big city. Find out about the culture, architecture and the life of Europeans and Indians of the city during the colonial period.

Ans : The Europeans were living in the well serviced areas in Calcutta after the British conquest of Bengal. On the other hand, the native people were living in very congested areas. The Europeans enjoyed clubs, large homes, race, golf, domestic facilities including water and electricity supplies. Calcutta developed as the cultural city of dramas, theatres, music and religious festivals. Moreover, the city was developed as the example of architecture along with the best cuisine.

Q.11: Collect pictures, stories, poems and information about any of the following – the Rani of Jhansi, Mahadji Sindhia, Haidar Ali, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Lord Dalhousie or any other contemporary ruler of your region.

Ans : Rani Lakshmi Bai was well known as the Rani of Jhansi. She led her troops into battle heroically. When she was driven out of Jhansi, she captured Gwalior with the help of Tantya Tope. She fought bravely with the British troops. However, she was killed in fighting at Kalpi (near Gwalior). She was an illustrious example of women power and courage. Her name is taken with utmost respect. Though not alive, she is in the heart of all Indians. The path she has shown to us is the path of selfless services and sacrifices.

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