Electronic structure of Alcohols:-
(i) In alcohols both oxygen and the carbon attached to it are sp3 hybridized
(ii) Two of the four sp3 hybridized orbitals of oxygen overlaps separately with l0 orbital of H and an sp3 orbital of carbon of alkyl group to form OH and C – O bond
Methods of preparation of alcohols:-
From Haloalkanes:- when HaloAlkanes (alkyl halides) are heated with aqueous sodium or Potassium Hydroxide, they forms alcohols
From Alkenes:- Alcohols can be produced from Alkenes by their Hydration, by passing alkenes through concentrated H2SO4 and then hydrolysis with boiling water gives alcohols.
Mechanism: – it involves following steps
(i) Electrophilic attack by hydroxyl union on alkenes gives a carbocation intermediate :-
(ii) Nucleophilic attack by water on 20 carbocation
(iii) Deprotonation or loss of proton to form alcohol
Hydroboration – oxidation :- B2H6 (Diborane) if C- deficient molecule it acts as an electrophilic and react with alkenes to form trialkylborates which on subsequent oxidation with alkaline H2O2 gives alcohols
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